(a) Ala
(b) Cho
(c) GSH
(d) Lac
(e) pCho
(f) Tau
(g) Chol
(h) FA
(i) UFA
Figure 5: Abundance of selected metabolites was obtained by measuring the integral of a single, resolved resonance from each metabolite in 1H-NMR of HepG2 cells upon exposure time. (a) Alanine, (b) choline, (c) glutathione, (d) lactate, (e) phosphocholine, (f) taurine, (g) cholesterol, (h) fatty acid, and (i) unsaturated fatty acid. White bar: control group, gray bar: low dose group, striped bar: middle dose group, and black bar: high dose group. Data presented in this figure were mean ± SD . Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between control and treated cells (, ).