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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine has retracted this article. The article was found to contain images with the following concerns: There are irregularities in the background in Figures and ; the tubulin controls in Figures and are the same; Figure , Cyclin B (72 hrs) is the same as Figure , TGF beta1 (24 hrs); Figure , the lanes in the TGF-alpha rows at 6 hours and 72 hours do not align. The authors provided corrected figures, which are available as Supplementary Materials, but could not provide the underlying blots.

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  1. J.-P. Wu, C.-C. Tsai, Y.-L. Yeh et al., “Silymarin accelerates liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 603529, 14 pages, 2015.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 603529, 14 pages
Research Article

Silymarin Accelerates Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

1Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2School of Chinese Medicine for Post-Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
3Chinese Medicine Department, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
4Department of Pathology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 50006, Taiwan
5Department of Medical Technology, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli 35664, Taiwan
6Orthopaedic Department, Armed Forces General Hospital, Taichung 32551, Taiwan
7Department of Nursing, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan
8Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India
9Cardiology Department of Taichung Armed Forces General Hospital, Taichung 32551, Taiwan
10Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
11Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan

Received 11 September 2014; Revised 15 January 2015; Accepted 22 January 2015

Academic Editor: Ravirajsinh N. Jadeja

Copyright © 2015 Jia-Ping Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a liver regeneration physiological response induced to maintain homeostasis. Liver regeneration evolved presumably to protect wild animals from catastrophic liver loss caused by toxins or tissue injury. Silymarin (Sm) ability to stimulate liver regeneration has been an object of curiosity for many years. Silymarin has been investigated for use as an antioxidant and anticarcinogen. However, its use as a supportive treatment for liver damage is elusive. In this study, we fed silymarin (Sm, 25 mg/kg) to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 weeks. Surgical 2/3 PHx was then conducted on the rats at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs. Western blot and RT-PCR were conducted to detect the cell cycle activities and silymarin effects on hepatic regeneration. The results showed that silymarin enhanced liver regeneration by accelerating the cell cycle in PHx liver. Silymarin led to increased G1 phase (cyclin D1/pRb), S phase (cyclin E/E2F), G2 phase (cyclin B), and M phase (cyclin A) protein and mRNA at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs PHx. HGF, TGFα, and TGFβ1 growth factor expressions were also enhanced. We suggest that silymarin plays a crucial role in accelerated liver regeneration after PHx.