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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 616309, 11 pages
Research Article

Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

1Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
2Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
3Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea
4Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
5College of Education, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
6Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
7Wonkwang Research Institute for Food Industry, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea

Received 2 December 2014; Revised 27 December 2014; Accepted 27 December 2014

Academic Editor: Wagner Vilegas

Copyright © 2015 Beom-Su Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.