A Novel Korean Red Ginseng Compound Gintonin Inhibited Inflammation by MAPK and NF-κB Pathways and Recovered the Levels of mir-34a and mir-93 in RAW 264.7 Cells
Gintonin diminished mRNA expressions of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells. For mRNA expression, RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with gintonin (6.25 μg/mL–50 μg/mL) for 30 min and then stimulated with LPS (0.1 μg/mL) for 18 h. Total RNA was isolated by Trizol RNA extraction reagent and mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was determined by RT-PCR. GAPDH was used as housekeeping gene. Images are representative of 4 independent experiments. Values in bar graph are mean ± SEM of 4 independent experiments. and compared to LPS only.