Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Neuroimaging and Neuromonitoring Effects of Electro and Manual Acupuncture on the Central Nervous System: A Literature Review and Analysis

Table 3

EEG studies on the effect of MA and EA.


Cabrini et al. [38]2006Bispectral Index evaluation of the sedative effect of acupuncture in healthy volunteersEvaluation of BIS changes due to bilateral MA at PC6, LR3, HT7, Yintang, ear point Shenmen versus nearby NAPBIS values did not differ between true and sham acupuncture at any time point during the study period and BIS changes over time did not differ between the two treatments.

Hsu et al. [39]2011Variations of brain activities of acupuncture to TE5 of left hand in normal subjectsEvaluation of effects on the EEG during and after MA at TH5 (l) versus nearby NAPDuring acupuncture stimulation, the theta energy was increased. During acupuncture, only alpha energy was noted to have statistical difference.

Kim et al. [40]2008The effect of acupuncture at PC-6 on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogramEvaluation of MA effects on the EEG during PC6 versus nearby NAPEEG signals increased after acupuncture stimulation. In each frequency band, the average amplitude of EEG power was higher after acupuncture stimulation than after NAP stimulation.

Kim et al. [43]2009A characteristic estimation of bio-signals for electro-acupuncture stimulations in human subjectsEvaluation of bilateral EA effects at PC5 versus PC6 versus nearby NAP on the EEGTheir findings showed that during verum acupuncture the power spectrum of the low frequency bands in the EEG increased in all lobes.

Litscher [41]2004Effects of acupressure, manual acupuncture and laserneedle acupuncture on EEG bispectral index and spectral edge frequency in healthy volunteersEvaluation of the effects on BIS during MA versus laser acupuncture versus acupressure at Yintang versus acupressure at NAP (near Yintang)The study reports a decrease of BIS and spectral edge frequency values for acupressure and laser acupuncture at Yintang and for acupressure at the NAP, but not for manual acupuncture.

Streitberger et al. [42]2008Effects of verum acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture on quantitative EEG and heart rate variability in healthy volunteersEvaluation of the effects on the quantitative EEG during MA at LI4 (bil) versus Streitberger sham acupuncture at nearby NAPIn linear relation to heart rate variability (HRV) changes, verum acupuncture influenced the power EEG with increase in the alpha1-frequency of the occipital region with a shift of the alpha1/theta ratio to the benefit of alpha1 over all electrodes.
A negative linear correlation was found between the theta-band of the quantitative EEG and the HRV parameters, and a negative linear correlation was also found between low frequency and alpha1 as well as between high frequency and alpha1.

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