Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 682735, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/682735
Review Article

Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes

1Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Room 208, Building 61, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanank-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
2A324, KAIST Institute for Information Technology Convergence, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
3Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Korea

Received 24 June 2015; Accepted 16 August 2015

Academic Editor: Morry Silberstein

Copyright © 2015 Hoon-Gi Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Y. Pang, “The practice of traditional Korean medicine in Washington, D.C,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 875–884, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. W. Shin, “Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era,” Korean Journal of Medical History, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–43, 2010 (Korean). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. H. Kim, Great Discovery in Biology and Medicine-Substance of Kyungrak, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 1962.
  4. The Kyungrak Research Institute, On the Kyungrak System, The Kyungrak Research Institute, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 1964.
  5. The Academy of Kyungrak, “Kyungrak system,” in Proceedings of the Academy of Kyungrak of the DPRK, vol. 2, pp. 9–67, Medical Science Press, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  6. The Academy of Kyungrak, “Theory of sanal,” in Proceedings of the Academy of Kyungrak of the DPRK, vol. 2, pp. 69–104, Medical Science Press, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  7. The Academy of Kyungrak, “Circulation of sanal-cell in blood cells,” Journal of Jo Sun Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 1–6, 1965 (Korean). View at Google Scholar
  8. H. G. Kim, “Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 319–330, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. S. Soh, “Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 93–106, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. A. Islam, S. D. Thomas, S. Slone, H. Alatassi, and D. M. Miller, “Tumor-associated primo vascular system is derived from xenograft, not host,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 84–90, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Ping, S. Zhendong, Q. Rongmei et al., “Primo vascular system: an endothelial-to-mesenchymal potential transitional tissue involved in gastric cancer metastasis,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 812354, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. S. Yoo and K. S. Soh, “A transformative approach to cancer metasis: primo vascular system as a novel microenvironment for cancer stem cells,” Cancer Cell & Microenvironment, vol. 1, no. 3, article e142, 9 pages, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. H. Hwang, S. J. Lee, S. H. Park et al., “Nonmarrow hematopoiesis occurs in a hyaluronic-acid-rich node and duct system in mice,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 2661–2671, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim et al., “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 2831–2840, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. S. Park, J. H. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. Heo, D. M. Shin, and C. H. Leem, “Expression of stem cell markers in primo vessel of rat,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 438079, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. Z. F. Jia, K. S. Soh, Q. Zhou, B. Dong, and W. H. Yu, “Study of novel threadlike structures on the intestinal fascia of dogs,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 98–101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Sung, M. S. Kim, B. C. Lee et al., “Measurement of flow speed in the channels of novel threadlike structures on the surfaces of mammalian organs,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 117–124, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. S. Lee and B. C. Lee, “Visualization of the network of primo vessels and primo nodes above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats by using Alcian blue,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 218–225, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. C. Lee, S. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel anatomic structures in the brain and spinal cord of rabbit that may belong to the Bonghan system of potential acupuncture meridians,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. C. Lee, H. B. Kim, B. Sung et al., “Network of endocardial vessels,” Cardiology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit,” Lymphology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 178–185, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107–117, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Dai, B. C. Lee, P. An et al., “In situ staining of the primo vascular system in the ventricles and subarachnoid space of the brain by trypan blue injection into the lateral ventricle,” Neural Regeneration Research, vol. 6, no. 28, pp. 2171–2175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “A novel model for meridian: Bonghan systems combined with fascia (Bonghan-Fascia Model),” in Fascia Research II: Basic Science and Implications for Conventional and Complementary Healthcare, p. 144, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. C. Yang, Y. K. Du, J. B. Wu et al., “Fascia and primo vascular system,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 303769, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Y. Park, B. S. Chang, S. H. Lee, J. H. Yoon, S. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Observation of the primo vessel approaching the axillary lymph node with the fluorescent dye, DiI,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 287063, 5 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize Bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and X-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphatic Research and Biology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 181–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. S. Lee, W. H. Park, A. R. Je, H. S. Kweon, and B. C. Lee, “Evidence for novel structures (primo vessels and primo nodes) floating in the venous sinuses of rat brains,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 522, no. 2, pp. 98–102, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. S. Shin, H. M. Johng, B. C. Lee et al., “Feulgen reaction study of novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) on the surfaces of mammalian organs,” The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist, vol. 284, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. C. Lee, K. Y. Baik, H. M. Johng et al., “Acridine orange staining method to reveal the characteristic features of an intravascular threadlike structure,” Anatomical Record B: New Anatomist, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist, vol. 286, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. X. Wang, H. Shi, J. Cui et al., “Preliminary research of relationship between acute peritonitis and celiac primo vessels,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Kim, V. Ogay, B. C. Lee et al., “Catecholamine-producing novel endocrine organ: bonghan system,” Medical Acupuncture, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. S. Kwon, C. M. Ha, S. S. Yu, B. C. Lee, J. Y. Ro, and S. Hwang, “Microscopic nodes and ducts inside lymphatics and on the surface of internal organs are rich in granulocytes and secretory granules,” Cytokine, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 587–592, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. H. Nam, K. S. Ahn, and S. H. Choi, “Acupuncture stimulation induces neurogenesis in adult brain,” International Review of Neurobiology, vol. 111, pp. 67–90, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. S. Seo and H. K. Shin, “Simultaneous determination of nine marker compounds in the traditional Korean medicine, Dangguisu-san by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, vol. 11, no. 43, pp. 555–561, 2015. View at Google Scholar