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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 759459, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/759459
Research Article

Synergy and Mode of Action of Ceftazidime plus Quercetin or Luteolin on Streptococcus pyogenes

1School of Pharmacology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Suranaree Subdistrict, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
2Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization), Suranaree Subdistrict, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand

Received 26 May 2015; Revised 6 September 2015; Accepted 30 September 2015

Academic Editor: Jairo Kennup Bastos

Copyright © 2015 Supatcharee Siriwong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Streptococcus pyogenes causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The recommended therapy has been often failure through the interfering of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB). The present study was to investigate antibacterial activity, synergy, and modes of action of luteolin and quercetin using alone and plus ceftazidime against S. pyogenes. The MICs of ceftazidime, luteolin, and quercetin against all S. pyogenes were 0.50, 128, and 128 µg mL−1, respectively. A synergistic effect was exhibited on luteolin and quercetin plus ceftazidime against these strains at fractional inhibitory concentration indices 0.37 and 0.27, respectively, and was confirmed by the viable count. These combinations increased cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability, caused irregular cell shape, peptidoglycan, and CM damage, and decreased nucleic acid but increased proteins in bacterial cells. Enzyme assay demonstrated that these flavonoids had an inhibitory activity against β-lactamase. In summary, this study provides evidence that the inhibitory mode of action of luteolin and quercetin may be mediated via three mechanisms: (1) inhibiting of peptidoglycan synthesis, (2) increasing CM permeability, and (3) decreasing nucleic acid but increasing the protein contents of bacterial cells. So, luteolin and quercetin propose the high potential to develop adjunct to ceftazidime for the treatment of coexistence of the BLPB and S. pyogenes infections.