Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 768049, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/768049
Research Article

PMC-12, a Prescription of Traditional Korean Medicine, Improves Amyloid -Induced Cognitive Deficits through Modulation of Neuroinflammation

1Division of Meridian and Structural Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870, Republic of Korea
2Korean Medical Science Research Center for Healthy Aging, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870, Republic of Korea
3Department of Horticultural Bioscience, College of Natural Resource and Life Science, Pusan National University, Miryang, Gyeongnam 626-706, Republic of Korea
4Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea
5Research Center for Anti-Aging Technology Development, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea
6Division of Humanities and Social Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870, Republic of Korea

Received 18 February 2015; Revised 28 March 2015; Accepted 28 March 2015

Academic Editor: Ki-Wan Oh

Copyright © 2015 Min Young Park et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Hardy and D. J. Selkoe, “The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5580, pp. 353–356, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Akiyama, S. Barger, S. Barnum et al., “Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 383–421, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. T. Akama, C. Albanese, R. G. Pestell, and L. J. van Eldik, “Amyloid beta-peptide stimulates nitric oxide production in astrocytes through an NFkappab-dependent mechanism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 5795–5800, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. S. Aisen, “Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies,” Gerontology, vol. 43, no. 1-2, pp. 143–149, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. L. McGeer, T. Kawamata, D. G. Walker, H. Akiyama, I. Tooyama, and E. G. McGeer, “Microglia in degenerative neurological disease,” Glia, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 84–92, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. B. Rich, D. X. Rasmusson, M. F. Folstein, K. A. Carson, C. Kawas, and J. Brandt, “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Alzheimer's disease,” Neurology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 51–55, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. F. Stewart, C. Kawas, M. Corrada, and E. J. Metter, “Risk of Alzheimer's disease and duration of NSAID use,” Neurology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 626–632, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Zhao, “Natural antioxidants protect neurons in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 630–638, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Adams, F. Gmünder, and M. Hamburger, “Plants traditionally used in age related brain disorders—a survey of ethnobotanical literature,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 363–381, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Natarajan, K. P. Shunmugiah, and P. D. Kasi, “Plants traditionally used in age-related brain disorders (dementia): an ethanopharmacological survey,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 492–523, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. H. May, C. Lu, Y. Lu, A. L. Zhang, and C. C. L. Xue, “Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2–11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Chao, Z. Song, C. Wang, and A. Lu, “In vitro antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products produced in the steaming process of Polygonum multiflorum root,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 55–58, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P.-Y. Yang, M. R. Almofti, L. Lu et al., “Reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and decrease of expressions of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in foam cells by a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 294–300, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H.-J. Park, N. Zhang, and D. K. Park, “Topical application of Polygonum multiflorum extract induces hair growth of resting hair follicles through upregulating Shh and β-catenin expression in C57BL/6 mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 369–375, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Y. Jang, H. N. Kim, Y. R. Kim et al., “Hexane extract from Polygonum multiflorum attenuates glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cultured cortical neurons,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 261–268, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y.-Z. Zhang, J.-F. Shen, J.-Y. Xu, J.-H. Xiao, and J.-L. Wang, “Inhibitory effects of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D- glucoside on experimental inflammation and cyclooxygenase 2 activity,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 355–363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. P. Liu, Z. P. Liao, D. Yin et al., “The protective effects of Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside preconditioning in an ischemia/reperfusion model of HUVECs,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 405–412, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Huang, Y. Wang, J. Wang, W. Yao, X. Chen, and W. Zhang, “TSG (2,3,4′,5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside) suppresses induction of pro-inflammatory factors by attenuating the binding activity of nuclear factor-κB in microglia,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 10, article 129, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Zhang, Y. Xing, C.-F. Ye, H.-X. Ai, H.-F. Wei, and L. Li, “Learning-memory deficit with aging in APP transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease and intervention by using tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 246–254, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Wang, Y. Tang, B. Feng et al., “Changes in hippocampal synapses and learning-memory abilities in age-increasing rats and effects of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside in aged rats,” Neuroscience, vol. 149, no. 4, pp. 739–746, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Wang, J. Gu, P.-F. Wu et al., “Protection by tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside against cerebral ischemia: involvement of JNK, SIRT1, and NF-κB pathways and inhibition of intracellular ROS/RNS generation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 229–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Lee, I. Shim, H. Lee, and D.-H. Hahm, “Rehmannia glutinosa ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in rats,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 874–883, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. Wang, Q. Liu, R. Zhang, S. Liu, Z. Xia, and Y. Hu, “Catalpol ameliorates beta amyloid-induced degeneration of cholinergic neurons by elevating brain-derived neurotrophic factors,” Neuroscience, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 1363–1372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. L. Zhang, B. Jiang, Z. B. Li, S. Hao, and L. J. An, “Catalpol ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative damage in the brain of senescent mice induced by d-galactose,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 64–72, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. Xue, J.-F. Hu, Y.-H. Yuan et al., “Polygalasaponin XXXII from polygala tenuifolia root improves hippocampal-dependent learning and memory,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1211–1219, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M.-H. Cheong, S.-R. Lee, H.-S. Yoo et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of Polygala tenuifolia root through inhibition of NF-κB activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglial cells,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 1402–1408, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Geng, C. Li, J. Liu et al., “Beta-asarone improves cognitive function by suppressing neuronal apoptosis in the beta-amyloid hippocampus injection rats,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 836–843, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Li, G. Xing, M. Dong et al., “Beta-asarone protection against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via JNK signaling and modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 635, no. 1–3, pp. 96–102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Wei, Y.-B. Chen, D.-F. Chen et al., “β-Asarone inhibits neuronal apoptosis via the CaMKII/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway in an in vitro model and AβPP/PS1 mice,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 863–880, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L.-L. Guo, Z.-Z. Guan, Y. Huang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-S. Shi, “The neurotoxicity of β-amyloid peptide toward rat brain is associated with enhanced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, all of which can be attenuated by scutellarin,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 579–584, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Takeda, N. Sato, K. Niisato et al., “Validation of Aβ1-40 administration into mouse cerebroventricles as an animal model for Alzheimer disease,” Brain Research, vol. 1280, pp. 137–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. H. Kim, C. J. Smith, and L. J. Van Eldik, “Importance of MAPK pathways for microglial pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β production,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 431–439, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, S. S. Bae et al., “Protective effect of the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor cilostazol on amyloid β-induced cognitive deficits associated with decreased amyloid β accumulation,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 408, no. 4, pp. 602–608, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Kaskie and M. Storandt, “Visuospatial deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer type,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 422–425, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Cheng, S. N. Whitehead, V. Hachinski, and D. F. Cechetto, “Effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced inflammatory responses and memory deficits in the rat,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 140–151, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. N. Kalaria, “Microglia and Alzheimer's disease,” Current Opinion in Hematology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Mizuno, “The biphasic role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease,” International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 2012, Article ID 737846, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. F. Passos, C. P. Figueiredo, R. D. S. Prediger et al., “Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ in the neuro-inflammatory response and cognitive impairments induced by β-amyloid 1–40 peptide in mice,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 493–501, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. A. Abd-El-Fattah, N. F. Abdelakader, and H. F. Zaki, “Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate protects against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 723, no. 1, pp. 330–338, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Gackowski, R. Rozalski, A. Siomek et al., “Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage is characteristic for mixed Alzheimer disease/vascular dementia,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 266, no. 1-2, pp. 57–62, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. Hamel, N. Nicolakakis, T. Aboulkassim, B. Ongali, and X.-K. Tong, “Oxidative stress and cerebrovascular dysfunction in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 116–120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Z.-Y. Cai, Y. Yan, S.-Q. Sun et al., “Minocycline attenuates cognitive impairment and restrains oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion,” Neuroscience Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 305–313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. A. Lynch, “The multifaceted profile of activated microglia,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 139–156, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus