Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 793085, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/793085
Research Article

Integration of Spirituality in Medical Education in Iran: A Qualitative Exploration of Requirements

1Academy of Medical Sciences of Islamic Republic of Iran, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Pediatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Vali-e Asr Street, Cross Niyayesh Highway, Tehran 1985717443, Iran
3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health & Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 13 September 2015; Revised 3 November 2015; Accepted 8 November 2015

Academic Editor: Waris Qidwai

Copyright © 2015 Nadereh Memaryan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Bolhari, H. D. Alivand, and M. Mirzaee, “Spiritual approach in medical education and humanities,” Medical Ethics, vol. 1, no. 20, pp. 103–128, 2012 (Persian). View at Google Scholar
  2. N. Jafari, Z. Farajzadegan, A. Loghmani, M. Majlesi, and N. Jafari, “Spiritual well-being and quality of life of Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 619028, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Estebsari, M. Hossein Taghdisi, D. Mostafaei, E. Jamshidi, and M. Latifi, “Determining the factors contributing to quality of life of patients at the last stage of life: a qualitative study,” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, Article ID e13594, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Yousefi and H. A. Abedi, “Spiritual care in hospitalized patients,” Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 125–132, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. R. D'Souza, “The importance of spirituality in medicine and its application to clinical practice,” The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 186, no. 10, supplement, pp. S57–S59, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Jafari, A. Loghmani, and C. M. Puchalski, “Spirituality and health care in Iran: time to reconsider,” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1918–1922, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Lucchetti and A. L. Lucchetti, “Spirituality, religion, and health: over the last 15 years of field research (1999–2013),” The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 199–215, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Adib-Hajbaghery, S. Zehtabchi, and I. A. Fini, “Iranian nurses' professional competence in spiritual care in 2014,” Nursing Ethics, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. K. G. Barnett and A. H. Fortin, “Spirituality and medicine. A workshop for medical students and residents,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 481–485, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. E. King, A. Blue, R. Mallin, and C. Thiedke, “Implementation and assessment of a spiritual history taking curriculum in the first year of medical school,” Teaching and Learning in Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 64–68, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Lucchetti, A. L. G. Lucchetti, D. C. M. Espinha, L. R. De Oliveira, J. R. Leite, and H. G. Koenig, “Spirituality and health in the curricula of medical schools in Brazil,” BMC Medical Education, vol. 12, article 78, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. W. Musick, M. Nichols, S. Woods, and S. Tipton, “Toward a more spiritual approach to medical education,” Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 101–104, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Sadeghifar, M. Bahadori, D. Baldacchino, M. Raadabadi, and M. Jafari, “Relationship between career motivation and perceived spiritual leadership in health professional educators: a correlational study in Iran,” Global Journal of Health Science, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 145–154, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Lucchetti, A. L. G. Lucchetti, and C. M. Puchalski, “Spirituality in medical education: global reality?” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 3–19, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. M. Puchalski and D. B. Larson, “Developing curricula in spirituality and medicine,” Academic Medicine, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 970–974, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. M. Puchalski, B. Blatt, M. Kogan, and A. Butler, “Spirituality and health: the development of a field,” Academic Medicine, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Kattimani, “Spirituality and medical education in India: are we ready?” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 500–501, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Zolfaghari, “Change planning in medical education,” Iranian Journal of Medical Education, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1313–1316, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. Z. Varvasovszky and R. Brugha, “A stakeholder analysis,” Health Policy and Planning, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 338–345, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. N. Frouzandeh, F. Aein, and C. Noorian, “Introducing a spiritual care training course and determining its effectiveness on nursing students' self-efficacy in providing spiritual care for the patients,” Journal of Education and Health Promotion, vol. 4, article 34, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Elo and H. Kyngäs, “The qualitative content analysis process,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 107–115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H.-F. Hsieh and S. E. Shannon, “Three approaches to qualitative content analysis,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1277–1288, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. U. H. Graneheim and B. Lundman, “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Rassouli, V. Zamanzadeh, A. Ghahramanian, A. Abbaszadeh, H. Alavi-Majd, and A. Nikanfar, “Experiences of patients with cancer and their nurses on the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in oncology units,” Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  25. A. Tabatabaee, P. Hasani, H. Mortazavi et al., “Strategies to enhance Rigour in qualitative research,” Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 663–670, 2013 (Persian). View at Google Scholar
  26. D. R. Krathwohl, “A revision of bloom's taxonomy: an overview,” Theory into Practice, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 212–218, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. P. Loh, H. Ghorab, E. Clarke, R. Conroy, and J. Barlow, “Medical students' knowledge, perceptions, and interest in complementary and alternative medicine,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 360–366, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. L. Graves, C. K. Shue, and L. Arnold, “The role of spirituality in patient care: incorporating spirituality training into medical school curriculum,” Academic Medicine, vol. 77, no. 11, p. 1167, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. L. Rogers, S. T. Skidmore, G. T. Montgomery, M. A. Reidhead, and V. A. Reidhead, “Spiritual integration predicts self-reported mental and physical health,” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1188–1201, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. G. Peach, “Religion, spirituality and health: how should Australia's medical professionals respond?” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 86–88, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus