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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 795435, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/795435
Research Article

Antibacterial Effects and Mode of Action of Selected Essential Oils Components against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

1Research Center for Food and Development, CIAD, A.C., 83000 Hermosillo, SON, Mexico
2LEPABE, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3CIQUP, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
4Veterinary and Animal Science Research Center (CECAV), Department of Veterinary Science, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Received 5 May 2015; Revised 11 June 2015; Accepted 11 June 2015

Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo

Copyright © 2015 Julio Cesar Lopez-Romero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals), may be used to surpass or reduce this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect and mode of action of selected essential oils (EOs) components: carveol, carvone, citronellol, and citronellal, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed for the selected EOs components. Moreover, physicochemical bacterial surface characterization, bacterial surface charge, membrane integrity, and leakage assays were carried out to investigate the antimicrobial mode of action of EOs components. Citronellol was the most effective molecule against both pathogens, followed by citronellal, carveol, and carvone. Changes in the hydrophobicity, surface charge, and membrane integrity with the subsequent leakage from E. coli and S. aureus were observed after exposure to EOs. This study demonstrates that the selected EOs have significant antimicrobial activity against the bacteria tested, acting on the cell surface and causing the disruption of the bacterial membrane. Moreover, these molecules are interesting alternatives to conventional antimicrobials for the control of microbial infections.