Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

Table 2

Mean change in outcomes from baseline to each time interval.

The laser acupuncture group The sham laser acupuncture group value
( = 28)( = 26)
Mean ± SD95% CI valueMean ± SD95% CI value
(minimum, median, maximum)(minimum, median, maximum)

VAS
 Visit 1 (baseline)44.64 ± 11.86 (30, 40, 75)47.78 ± 10.95 (30, 40, 80)
 Visit 2−2.68 ± 10.04 (−30, 0, 20)−5.91, 0.550.0848−5.56 ± 9.23 (−30, 0, 10)−8.59, −2.52<0.010.2743
 Visit 3−8.75 ± 10.42 (−30, −10, 10)−12.1, −5.4<0.001−7.22 ± 12.58 (−40, −10, 20)−11.35, −3.09<0.010.6253
 Visit 4 (f/u)−11.07 ± 12.12 (−40, −10, 10)−14.97, −7.17<0.001−12.78 ± 13.82 (−60, −10, 10)−17.31, −8.24<0.0010.6281
PPT
 Visit 1 (baseline)7.12 ± 2.27 (3, 7, 12)6.56 ± 1.86 (4, 6, 12)
 Visit 2−1.34 ± 1.66 (−5, −1, 1)−1.88, −0.81<0.001−0.96 ± 1.26 (−4, −1, 2)−1.37, −0.55<0.0010.3423
 Visit 3−1.3 ± 2.3 (−7, −1, 2)−2.04, −0.56<0.01−0.76 ± 1.49 (−4, −1, 2)−1.24, −0.27<0.010.3060
 Visit 4 (f/u)−1.2 ± 2.21 (−6, −1, 3)−1.91, −0.49<0.01−0.8 ± 1.55 (−4, −1, 2)−1.3, −0.29<0.010.4374
PGIC
 Visit 1 (baseline)4 ± 0 (4, 4, 4)4 ± 0 (4, 4, 4)
 Visit 4 (f/u)−1 ± 0.72 (−2, −1, 0)−1.23, −0.77<0.001−0.93 ± 0.78 (−3, −1, 1)−1.18, −0.67<0.0010.7159
EQ-5D
 Visit 1 (baseline)0.79 ± 0.08 (0.56, 0.81, 0.9)0.75 ± 0.1 (0.51, 0.77, 0.86)
 Visit 4 (f/u)0.03 ± 0.08 (−0.14, 0, 0.23)0.01, 0.06<0.050.04 ± 0.09 (−0.1, 0.04, 0.31)0.01, 0.07<0.010.5833

Results of paired two-sample -test for outcome variables within each group; results of independent two-sample -test for outcome variables between groups.
Since all statistical analyses were set to the one-tailed test, 90% confidence intervals were provided.
VAS: visual analogue scale; PGIC: patient global impression of change; PPT: pressure pain threshold; EQ-5D: Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions; f/u: follow-up.

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