Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Structural Integration as an Adjunct to Outpatient Rehabilitation for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial

Table 2

Baseline characteristics of treatment groups.

Variable (range)SI + OR ()OR alone ()1

 Number (%)13 (56%)14 (61%)0.77
 Number (%)20 (87%) 16 (70%)0.16
Age years (18–54)
 Mean (SD)43.1 (13.4)45.6 (14.0)0.54
BMI (<40)
 Mean (SD)26.1 (4.4)23.0 (4.8)0.18
VAS Pain (0–100 mm)
 Mean (SD)46 (23)50 (20)0.55
RMDQ (0–24)
 Mean (SD)7.7 (4.5)7.7 (5.3)1.00
Prescription pain medication
 Number (%)2 (9%)5 (22%)0.23
Years since onset
 Mean (SD)10.7 (10.9)6.6 (6.3)0.12
Sum of days and half days disabled
 Mean (SD)4.1 (4.6)5.3 (4.5)0.92
Depression (HADS-D) (0–21)
 Mean (SD)3.7 (3.9)3.8 (3.3)0.98
Anxiety (HADS-A) (0–21)
 Mean (SD)5.5 (2.8)5.8 (3.4)0.71
Pain catastrophizing (PCS) (0–56)
 Mean (SD)14.3 (11.4)15.1 (10.6)0.80
Kinesiophobia (TSK) (−3 to +48)
 Mean (SD)14.2 (9.7)15.4 (8.2)0.67
Hypochondriasis (W7-IW) (0–3)
 Mean (SD)0.6 (0.6)0.6 (0.8)0.71
Somatization (W7-IC) (0–3)
 Mean (SD)1.1 (1.0)0.7 (0.8)0.26

SD: standard deviation.
BMI: body mass index.
VAS Pain: visual analogue scale of pain.
RMDQ: Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.
HADS-D and HADS-A: depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PCS: Pain Catastrophizing Scale.
TSK: Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia.
W7-IW and W7-IC: Illness Worry and Illness Conviction subscales of the Wiley-7.
2-sided Student’s -test.

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