Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Effect of Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Goreisan on Reoperation Rates after Burr-Hole Surgery for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Analysis of a National Inpatient Database

Table 1

Baseline characteristic of patients with and without Goreisan in unmatched and propensity-matched groups.

Unmatched groups (,020)Propensity-matched groups (,758)
Goreisan users
(,889)
Goreisan nonusers
(,131)
Standardized differenceGoreisan users
(,879)
Goreisan nonusers
(,879)
Standardized difference

Type of hospital, (%)
 Nonacademic2,997 (77.1)27,644 (86.0)19.62,997 (77.3)3,016 (77.8)1.0
 Academic892 (22.9)4,487 (14.0)−19.6882 (22.7)863 (22.2)−1.0
Hospital volume (per year), (%)
 ≤221,133 (29.1)9,836 (30.6)2.61,131 (29.2)1,098 (28.3)−1.5
 23–361,283 (33.0)10,848 (33.8)1.31,275 (32.9)1,340 (34.5)2.9
 ≥371,473 (37.9)11,447 (35.6)−3.81,473 (38.0)1,441 (37.1)−1.4
Fiscal year, (%)
 2010568 (14.6)7,748 (24.1)19.2568 (14.6)564 (14.5)−0.2
 20111,278 (32.9)12,066 (37.6)8.01,278 (32.9)1,305 (33.6)1.2
 20122,043 (52.5)12,317 (38.3)−23.62,033 (52.4)2,010 (51.8)−1.0
Age (years), mean (SD)76.5 (10.7)76.4 (11.1)−1.476.2 (10.7)76.2 (10.7)0.0
Sex, (%)
 Male2,644 (68.0)21,577 (67.2)−1.52,636 (68.0)2,618 (67.5)−0.8
 Female1,245 (32.0)10,554 (32.8)1.51,243 (32.0)1,261 (32.5)0.8
Body mass index (kg/m2), (%)
 <18.5487 (12.5)4,164 (13.0)1.1486 (12.5)452 (11.7)−2.2
 18.5–22.91,712 (44.0)14,065 (43.8)−0.41,709 (44.1)1,746 (45.0)1.6
 23.0–24.9681 (17.5)5,356 (16.7)−1.8681 (17.6)723 (18.6)2.3
 25.0–29.9556 (14.3)4,079 (12.7)−3.9550 (14.2)536 (13.8)−0.9
 ≥30.057 (1.5)459 (1.4)−0.357 (1.5)46 (1.2)−2.1
 Missing396 (10.2)4,090 (12.7)6.4396 (10.2)376 (9.7)−1.4
Barthel Index at admission, (%)
 0794 (20.4)7,676 (23.9)6.8794 (20.5)809 (20.9)0.8
 5–45671 (17.3)5,679 (17.7)0.9670 (17.3)609 (15.7)−3.5
 50–95808 (20.8)6,016 (18.7)−4.2804 (20.7)746 (19.2)−3.1
 100894 (23.0)6,740 (21.0)−4.0889 (22.9)991 (25.5)5.0
 Missing722 (18.6)6,020 (18.7)0.4722 (18.6)724 (18.7)0.1
Japan Coma Scale at admission, (%)
 0 (alert)1,809 (46.5)14,112 (43.9)−4.31,799 (46.4)1,898 (48.9)4.2
 1 digit (drowsy)1,844 (47.4)15,124 (47.1)−0.61,844 (47.5)1,747 (45.0)−4.1
 2 digits (somnolence)190 (4.9)1,965 (6.1)4.3190 (4.9)185 (4.8)−0.5
 3 digits (coma)46 (1.2)930 (2.9)9.346 (1.2)49 (1.3)0.6
Comorbidities, (%)
 Malignancy137 (3.5)1,359 (4.2)2.9137 (3.5)125 (3.2)−1.4
 Ischemic heart disease184 (4.7)1,562 (4.9)0.5184 (4.7)163 (4.2)−2.2
 Chronic heart failure113 (2.9)1,057 (3.3)1.8113 (2.9)96 (2.5)−2.2
 Chronic renal failure53 (1.4)836 (2.6)6.953 (1.4)47 (1.2)−1.1
 Liver cirrhosis22 (0.6)163 (0.5)−0.722 (0.6)24 (0.6)0.5
 Pneumonia27 (0.7)289 (0.9)1.827 (0.7)20 (0.5)−1.9
 Urinary tract infection9 (0.2)104 (0.3)1.49 (0.2)12 (0.3)1.2
 Sepsis2 (0.1)35 (0.1)1.62 (0.1)3 (0.1)0.8
Antithrombotic agent use, (%)317 (8.2)2,639 (8.2)0.2314 (8.1)278 (7.2)−2.9
Mannitol infusion, (%)104 (2.7)1,033 (3.2)2.6104 (2.7)84 (2.2)−2.8
Steroid infusion, (%)15 (0.4)243 (0.8)3.815 (0.4)15 (0.4)0.0

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