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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 824395, 10 pages
Research Article

The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

1Systems Biology Program, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, 5322 Endo, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0882, Japan
2Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 246-2 Mizukami, Kakuganji, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-0052, Japan
3Onsen Medical Science Research Center, Japan Health and Research Institute, 1-29-4 Kakigaracho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0014, Japan
4Ito Medical Office, 7985-5, Nagayu, Naoirimachi, Taketa, Oita 878-0402, Japan
5Faculty of Human Life Sciences, Tokyo City University, 8-9-18 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8586, Japan

Received 29 September 2015; Revised 4 November 2015; Accepted 22 November 2015

Academic Editor: Jenny M. Wilkinson

Copyright © 2015 Shinnosuke Murakami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.