Table 1: Mineral contents and pH of TW and BMW used in this study.

MineralsFormulaConc. (mg/kg)
TWBMW

Bicarbonate ion282485
Chlorine ionCl11182
Sulfate ion6.9355
Carbonate ion<0.11.2
Nitrate ion0.71.2
Fluoride ionF<0.10.3
Hydrogen sulfide ionHS<0.1<0.1
Iodide ionI<0.1<0.1
Bromide ionBr<0.1<0.1
Sodium ionNa+10412
Magnesium ionMg2+1.9291
Calcium ionCa2+6.1177
Potassium ionK+<0.180
Aluminum ionAl3+0.20.6
Manganese ionMn2+<0.10.4
Ferrous ionFe2+<0.12.3
Ferric ionFe3+<0.1<0.1
Metasilicic acidH2SiO310207
Metaboric acidHBO20.86.2
Carbon dioxideCO20.9161
Hydrogen sulfideH2S<0.1<0.1
MercuryHg<0.0005<0.0005
ArsenicAs<0.0050.005
CopperCu<0.05<0.05
ZincZn<0.1<0.1
LeadPb<0.05<0.05
CadmiumCd<0.01<0.01

pH7.587.07