Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Laughter and Stress Relief in Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Table 2

Change of numerical rating scale scores for anxiety, depression, and stress after therapeutic laughter program.

Intention-to-treat analysisPer-protocol analysis
Experimental
group ()
Control
group ()
valueExperimental
group ()
Control
group ()
value
Mean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD

Baseline
 Anxiety3.42 ± 2.083.21 ± 2.240.66b3.20 ± 2.312.97 ± 1.920.70a
 Depression3.48 ± 2.142.97 ± 1.920.33a3.30 ± 2.033.21 ± 2.240.83b
 Stress3.32 ± 2.093.62 ± 1.950.57a3.35 ± 2.213.62 ± 1.950.38b
Postintervention
 Anxiety1.48 ± 1.463.31 ± 2.22<0.01c1.10 ± 1.413.31 ± 2.22<0.01c
 Depression1.65 ± 1.623.31 ± 2.04<0.01c1.30 ± 1.663.31 ± 2.04<0.01c
 Stress1.26 ± 1.323.72 ± 1.81<0.01c0.80 ± 1.203.72 ± 1.81<0.01c
Difference
 Anxiety−1.94 ± 1.970.10 ± 1.97<0.01b−2.20 ± 1.850.10 ± 1.97<0.01b
 Depression−1.84 ± 1.630.34 ± 1.97<0.01b−1.90 ± 1.550.34 ± 1.97<0.01b
 Stress−2.06 ± 2.000.10 ± 2.14<0.01b−2.55 ± 1.880.10 ± 2.14<0.01b

values were calculated by (a) independent -test, (b) Mann-Whitney test, and (c) analysis of covariance test adjusting for marital status and baseline distress score.

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