Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Nonpharmacological Interventions for Pain Management in Paramedicine and the Emergency Setting: A Review of the Literature

Table 2

Intervention trials investigating the effect of acupressure on pain.


Kober et al., 2002 [13] Randomized double-blinded with minor trauma and small injuries Acupressure points were stimulated LI4 (Hegu), PC9 (Zhongchong), PC6 (Neiguan), BL60 (Kunlun), and GV20 (Baihui) Acupressure: ↓pain, anxiety, heart rate, and ↑patient satisfaction scores
Group 1 (, 64 ± 21 years old, true acupressure), Group 2 (, 78 ± 18 years old, false acupressure), and Group 3 (, 63 ± 21 years old, no acupressure)

Kober et al., 2003 [14] Randomized double-blinded with Acupressure in the ear with a small plastic ball (1 mm diameter) Relaxation point Acupressure: ↓anxiety, ↑perception of hospital medical treatment
gastrointestinal illnesses
Control (, sham, 70.0 ± 14 years old)
Intervention (, 74.9 ± 15 years old)

Bertalanffy et al., 2004 [15] Randomized double-blinded with minor trauma Korean hand acupuncture with hand patches consisting of hard plastic ball K-K9 point located in the middle phalanx of fourth finger Hand acupuncture: ↓nausea score, heart rate, vasoconstriction, and ↑overall patient satisfaction
Control (, sham, 85.4 ± 17.1 years old)
Intervention (, 87.6 ± 16.9 years old)

Barker et al., 2006 [16]Randomized double-blinded with hip fracture
Age = 86.2 years
Acupressure in the ear with 1 mm acupressure plastic beadsShenmen, hip, and valium pointAcupressure: ↓pain, anxiety, and heart rate
Control (, sham)
Intervention ()

Lang et al., 2007 [17]Randomized double-blinded with distal radius fracture
Control (, sham)
Intervention ()
Acupressure in the body with fingerIntervention: GV20 (Baihui) and LI4 (Hegu)
Sham: BL17 (Geshu) and TE14 (Jianliao)
Acupressure: ↓pain, anxiety, heart rate, and ↑overall patient satisfaction

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