Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Effects of Mind-Body Interventions on Sleep Quality: A Systematic Review

Table 1

Summary of study quality and outcomes.

StudySleep 1° or 2°; sleep issueROB; quality scoreStudy outcome, immediate; sustained

Biofeedback
Freedman and Papsdorf, 1976 [19]181; YU; 0NegativeA; NegativeA
Duivenvoorden and Van Dixhoorn, 1991 [20]1192; NU; 1NegativeA; NFU
Haralambous et al., 1987 [21]262; NU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Ebben et al., 2009 [22]101; NH; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Hauri, 1981 [23]431; YH; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Lamontagne et al., 1975 [24]232; NH; 1NegativeA; NFU
Nicassio et al., 1982 [25]221; YH; 2NegativeA; NFU
PositiveNA; NFU
Sanavio, 1988 [26]241; YH; 2NegativeA; NegativeA
VanderPlate and Eno, 1983 [27]361; YH; 2PositiveNA; NFU
PositiveA; NFU
Levin, 1998 [28]581; YU; 3MixedA; NFU
Yilmaz et al., 2010 [29]392; NU; 3MixedA; NFU
Lamontagne et al., 1977 [30]752; NH; 3NegativeNA; NegativeNA

Guided imagery
Casida et al., 2013 [31]401; NL; 0NegativeNA; NFU
Woolfolk and McNulty, 1983 [32]441; YU; 1NegativeNA; PositiveNA
Renzi et al., 2000 [33]862; NH; 1MixedNA; NFU

Hypnotherapy
Carnahan et al., 2010 [34]381; YU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Picard et al., 2013 [35]592; NU; 1NegativeNA; PositiveNA
Castel et al., 2012 [36]932; NH; 1NegativeA; NegativeA
Elkins et al., 2013 [37]1742; NH; 1PositiveA; PositiveA
Abrahamsen et al., 2008 [38]412; NH; 2NegativeA; NFU
Abrahamsen et al., 2009 [39]402; NH; 2NegativeA; NFU
Abramowitz et al., 2008 [40]322; YH; 2PositiveA; MixedA
Elkins et al., 2008 [41]512; NH; 2PositiveNA; NFU
Barabasz, 1976 [42]NR1; YU; 3PositiveA; NFU
Whitehouse et al., 1996 [43]352; NU; 3NegativeNA; NFU
Stanton, 1989 [44]451; YH; 3PositiveA; NFU

Meditation: mindfulness
Britton et al., 2010 [45]211; YL; 0NegativeNA; NFU
Britton et al., 2012 [46]241; YL; 0NegativeNA; NFU
Esmer et al., 2010 [47]252; NU; 1PositiveNA; PositiveNA
Gross et al., 2011 [48]271; YU; 1NegativeA; NegativeA
Stötter et al., 2013 [49]282; NU; 1MixedNA; NFU
Andersen et al., 2013 [50]2471; NH; 1MixedNA; NegativeNA
Carmody et al., 2011 [51]922; NH; 1PositiveNA; NegativeNA
Gross et al., 2010 [52]1221; NH; 1PositiveA; PositiveA
Lengacher et al., 2012 [53]842; NH; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Nakamura et al., 2013 [54]351; YH; 1MixedA; PositiveA
Wolever et al., 2012 [55]2052; NH; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Klatt et al., 2009 [56]452; NU; 2MixedNA; NFU
Malarkey et al., 2013 [57]1702; NH; 2NegativeA; NFU
Shapiro et al., 2003 [58]541; NH; 3NegativeA; NFU

Meditation: other
Chan et al., 2012 [59]511; YU; 0MixedA; NFU
MixedNA; NFU
Milbury et al., 2013 [60]402; NU; 1NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Nakamura et al., 2011 [61]581; YU; 1PositiveA; NFU
Pinniger et al., 2013 [62]641; NU; 1NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Rybarczyk et al., 1999 [63] + Rybarczyk et al., 2001 [64]2372; NU; 1PositiveNA; PositiveNA
Schoicket et al., 1988 [65]651; YU; 1NegativeA; NFU
Wiriyasombat et al., 2011 [66]771; NU; 1NegativeNA; PositiveNA

Meditation: TM
Travis et al., 2009 [67]382; NL; 0PositiveNA
Brooks and Scarano, 1985 [68]182; NU; 1PositiveA

Movement: yoga
Innes and Selfe, 2012 [69]201; NL; 0PositiveA; NFU
Mustian et al., 2013 [70]3211; YL; 0PositiveNA; NFU
Yurtkuran et al., 2007 [71]372; NL; 0PositiveNA; NFU
Afonso et al., 2012 [72]441; YU; 0PositiveNA; NFU
NegativeA; NFU
Hariprasad et al., 2013 [73]871; NU; 0PositiveNA; NFU
Vadiraja et al., 2009 [74]752; NH; 0PositiveA; NFU
Chattha et al., 2008 [75]1082; NU; 1NegativeA; NFU
Cohen et al., 2004 [76]381; NU; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Köhn et al., 2013 [77]372; NU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Bower et al., 2012 [78]312; NH; 1NegativeA; NegativeA
Chen et al., 2010 [79]551; NH; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Elavsky and McAuley, 2007 [80]1501; YH; 1NegativeA; NFU
NegativeNA; NFU
Wolever et al., 2012 [55]2052; NH; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Manjunath and Telles, 2005 [81]551; NU; 2NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Carson et al., 2009 [82]292; NH; 2PositiveNA; NegativeNA
Chandwani et al., 2010 [83]562; NH; 2NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Chen et al., 2009 [84]1281; NH; 2PositiveNA; NFU
Garfinkel et al., 1998 [85]422; NH; 2NegativeNA; NFU
Sakuma et al., 2012 [86]822; NH; 2NegativeNA; NFU
Dhruva et al., 2012 [87]162; NH; 3MixedNA; NFU

Movement: qi qong
Liu et al., 2012 [88]122; NU; 1MixedA; NFU
Lynch et al., 2012 [89]732; NU; 1PositiveNA; PositiveNA
Chen et al., 2013 [90]962; NH; 1NegativeNA; NegativeNA

Movement: Resseguier
Bongi et al., 2010 [91]412; NL; 0MixedNA; MixedNA

Movement: tai chi
Jones et al., 2012 [92]982; NL; 0PositiveA; NFU
Wang et al., 2010 [93]292; NU; 0NegativeA; NFU
Nguyen and Kruse, 2012 [94]731; NU; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Yeh et al., 2008 [95]181; NU; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Irwin et al., 2008 [96]1121; YH; 1PositiveA; NFU
Frye et al., 2007 [97]722; NU; 2NegativeA; NFU
PositiveNA; NFU
Li et al., 2004 [98]1181; YH; 2PositiveA; NFU

Multiple MB
Sendhilkumar et al., 2013 [99]202; NL; 0PositiveNA; NFU
Carlson et al., 2001 [100]442; NU; 1MixedNA; NegativeNA
Chen and Francis, 2010 [101]152; NU; 1MixedNA; NFU
Cohen and Fried, 2007 [102]1142; NU; 1PositiveA; PositiveA
PositiveNA; PositiveNA
Field et al., 2013 [103]752; NU; 1PositiveNA; NFU
Richardson, 2003 [104]361; NU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Yang et al., 2010 [105]792; NU; 1PositiveA; NFU
PositiveNA; NFU
Richards, 1998 [106]701; NH; 1NegativeNA; NFU
NegativeA; NFU
Sun et al., 2013 [107]751; YH; 1PositiveA; NFU
Toussaint et al., 2012 [108]212; NH; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Sumter et al., 2009 [109]332; NU; 2MixedNA; NFU

Relaxation: other
Gustavsson and von Koch, 2006 [110]332; NL; 0NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Giblin and Clift, 1983 [111]201; YU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Lindh-Åstrand and Nedstrand, 2013 [112]582; NU; 1PositiveNA; PositiveNA
Rambod et al., 2013 [113]831; NU; 1MixedNA; NFU
Rybarczyk et al., 2002 [114]411; YU; 1NegativeA; NegativeA
PositiveNA; PositiveNA

Relaxation: PMR
Edinger et al., 2001 [115]701; YL; 0NegativeA; NFU
Francis and D'Silva, 2012 [116]601; YU; 0MixedNA; NFU
Freedman and Papsdorf, 1976 [19]181; YU; 0NegativeA; NegativeA
Borkovec and Weerts, 1976 [117]331; YH; 0MixedA; PositiveA
MixedNA; NFU
Cannici et al., 1983 [118]301; YU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Engle-Friedman et al., 1992 [119]NR1; YU; 1NegativeA; NFU
PositiveNA; NFU
Espie et al., 1989 [120]701; YU; 1PositiveA; NegativeA
Field et al., 1999 [121]262; NU; 1NegativeA; NFU
Ducloux et al., 2013 [122]181; YH; 2NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Bae et al., 2012 [123]242; NH; 3MixedNA; NFU
Ireland et al., 1985 [124]282; NU; 1NegativeNA; NFU
Lick and Heffler, 1977 [125]401; YU; 1PositiveA; NFU
PositiveNA; NFU
Wang et al., 2012 [126]1302; YU; 1MixedNA; NFU
MixedA; NFU
Wilson, 1982 [127]642; NU; 1NegativeA; NFU
Woolfolk and McNulty, 1983 [32]441; YU; 1NegativeNA; NegativeNA
Lacks et al., 1983 [128]641; YH; 1NegativeA; NFU
Lichstein et al., 1999 [129]301; YU; 2PositiveNA; NFU
Waters et al., 2003 [130]531; YU; 2MixedNA; NFU
Greeff and Conradie, 1998 [131]221; YH; 2PositiveNA; NFU
Nicassio et al., 1982 [25]221; YH; 2PositiveNA; NFU

Studies were classified as positive (>25% of the measured sleep items had p value < 0.05 for between group over time comparison), mixed (>25% of the measured sleep items had value < 0.05 in the mind-body intervention group over time or between mind-body intervention and control at postassessment, but no between group over time comparison reported), or negative (<25% of the measured items had value < 0.05 favoring the mind-body intervention group compared to the control group).
Studies used multiple MBI and are, therefore, listed in different categories.
A = active control comparison; NA = nonactive control; NFU = no follow-up; H = high risk of bias, U = unclear risk of bias, and L = low risk of bias.

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