Table 4: The overall effects of herbal compress.

ComparatorStudyMean difference 95% confidence interval valueHeterogeneity test , %
df value

Knee OA—level of pain (various measures)
NSAIDs Chiranthanut et al., 2014 [11]0.222 [−0.400, 0.844]
NSAIDsPhromjuang, 2010 [15]0.483 [−0.146, 1.112]
NSAIDsPooled effects (2 studies) [11, 15]0.351 [−0.091, 0.793]0.1200.3310.5630.0
Knee exercise Lekutai et al., 2008 [14]1.430 [0.768–2.092]
Knee exerciseSukonthasarn, 2004 [18]−0.100 [−0.720, 0.520]
Knee exercisePooled effects (2 studies) [14, 18]0.660 [−0.839, 2.160]0.38810.9210.00190.8
Hot compress Lekutai et al., 2008 [14]0.207 [−0.301, 0.714]
Hot compressSuwan, 2000 [19]0.350 [−0.371, 1.072]
Hot compressPooled effects (2 studies ) [14, 19]0.254 [−0.161, 0.669]0.2300.1010.7500.0
Combined comparatorsPooled effects (5 studies) [11, 14, 15, 18, 19]0.419 [−0.004, 0.842]0.0529.5840.04858.3
Knee OA—difficulty in performing activities (various measures)
NSAIDs Chiranthanut et al., 2014 [11]0.544 [−0.088, 1.176]
Knee exercise Lekutai et al., 2008 [14]0.230 [−0.805, 1.265]
Knee exerciseSukonthasarn, 2004 [18]−0.450 [−1.893, 0.993]
Knee exercisePooled effects (2 studies) [14, 18]−0.001 [−0.842, 0.840]0.9980.5610.4530.0
Hot compressLekutai, 2008 [14]−0.059 [−0.565, 0.447]
Hot compressSuwan, 2000 [19]0.610 [−0.123, 1.343]
Hot compressPooled effects (2 studies) [14, 19]0.221 [−0.426, 0.868]0.5042.1710.14153.9
Combined comparatorsPooled effects (4 studies) [11, 14, 18, 19]0.224 [−0.128, 0.577]0.2134.4830.24228.3
Muscle pain—level of pain (VAS of pain, score range 0–10)
NSAIDs Sathianrat et al., 2003 [17]0.300 [−0.539, 1.139]
Hot compress Puengsuwan et al., 2009 [16]−0.280 [−1.613, 1.053]
Hot compress Sathianrat et al., 2003 [17]1.130 [0.300, 1.960]
Hot compressPooled effects (2 studies) [16, 17]0.525 [−0.842, 1.893]0.4523.1010.07867.7
Combined comparatorsPooled effects (2 studies) [16, 17]0.135 [−0.574, 0.845]0.7080.5210.4700.0
Induce lactation (duration from delivery to milk secretion, minutes)
Routine program Listisit and Pakdeechot, 2009 [20]−318.500 [−501.015, −35.985]
Routine program Pakdeechot et al., 2010 [21]−528.240 [−903.301, −153.179]
Routine programPooled effects (2 studies) [20, 21]−394.425 [−620.084, −168.766]0.0010.7710.3810.0

Analyzed by weighted mean difference unless stated otherwise; analyzed by standardized mean difference; were selected for combined comparators analysis (for studies that had two comparator groups).