Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 1592731, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1592731
Research Article

Jiang Tang Xiao Ke Granule, a Classic Chinese Herbal Formula, Improves the Effect of Metformin on Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic Mice

1Basic Theory of Chinese Medicine, Preclinical Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
2Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
3Diabetes Research Center, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China

Received 28 December 2015; Revised 30 April 2016; Accepted 24 May 2016

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Caminiti

Copyright © 2016 Yi Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Xiang, W. S. Cheang, S. H. Lin et al., “Plasma metabolic signatures reveal the regulatory effect of exercise training in db/db mice,” Molecular BioSystems, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 2588–2596, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Graup, M. L. De Araújo Bergmann, and G. G. Bergmann, “Prevalence of nonspecific lumbar pain and associated factors among adolescents in Uruguaiana, state of Rio Grande do sul,” Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 661–667, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Maiese, “mTOR: driving apoptosis and autophagy for neurocardiac complications of diabetes mellitus,” World Journal of Diabetes, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 217–224, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Ahmed, “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 2015,” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1450–1459, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Polimeni, M. del Ben, F. Baratta et al., “Oxidative stress: new insights on the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis,” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1325–1336, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Wang, J. Li, L. Zhuge et al., “Comparison between the efficacies of curcumin and puerarin in C57BL/6 mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 663–668, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H.-N. Wang, H.-D. Chen, K.-Y. Chen et al., “Highly expressed MT-ND3 positively associated with histological severity of hepatic steatosis,” APMIS, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 443–451, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Xiao, S. L. Waldrop, S. F. Bronk, G. J. Gores, L. S. Davis, and G. Kilic, “Lipoapoptosis induced by saturated free fatty acids stimulates monocyte migration: a novel role for Pannexin1 in liver cells,” Purinergic Signalling, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 347–359, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Pardo, Á. González-Rodríguez, J. Muntané, S. C. Kozma, and Á. M. Valverde, “Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 80, pp. 298–309, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. V. Machado, G. A. Michelotti, G. Xie et al., “Mouse models of diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis reproduce the heterogeneity of the human disease,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 6, article e0132315, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. U. Ashraf and T. A. Sheikh, “Endoplasmic reticulum stress and Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Free Radical Research, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1405–1418, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Sutti, A. Jindal, S. Bruzzì, I. Locatelli, C. Bozzola, and E. Albano, “Is there a role for adaptive immunity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 13, pp. 1725–1729, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Mihailović, J. A. Jovanović, A. Uskoković et al., “Protective effects of the mushroom Lactarius deterrimus extract on systemic oxidative stress and pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 576726, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. L. Rains and S. K. Jain, “Oxidative stress, insulin signaling, and diabetes,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 567–575, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Angulo and K. D. Lindor, “Treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 797–810, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. J. Krentz and C. J. Bailey, “Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Drugs, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 385–411, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Stumvoll, B. J. Goldstein, and T. W. Van Haeften, “Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9467, pp. 1333–1346, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. M. Setter, J. L. Iltz, J. Thams, and R. K. Campbell, “Metformin hydrochloride in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical review with a focus on dual therapy,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2991–3026, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. X. Xiong, X. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, P. Wang, and J. Wang, “Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 570–579, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Xiong, F. Borrelli, A. De Sá Ferreira, T. Ashfaq, and B. Feng, “Herbal medicines for cardiovascular diseases,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 809741, 2 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Wang and X. Xiong, “Current situation and perspectives of clinical study in integrative medicine in China,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 268542, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. Xie and L. Du, “Diabetes is an inflammatory disease: evidence from traditional Chinese medicines,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 289–301, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Guo, W. Bei, Y. Hu et al., “A new TCM formula FTZ lowers serum cholesterol by regulating HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 299–307, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Q. Yang, Y. Xu, G. Feng et al., “p38 MAPK signal pathway involved in anti-inflammatory effect of Chaihu-Shugan-San and Shen-ling-bai-zhu-San on hepatocyte in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis rats,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 213–221, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Q. Yu, S. S. Zhang, T. Zhou et al., “Treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients of Gan stagnation Pi deficiency syndrome by tiaogan lidi recipe: a randomized controlled clinical trial,” Zhong Guo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 401–405, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  26. K.-Q. Shi, Y.-C. Fan, W.-Y. Liu, L.-F. Li, Y.-P. Chen, and M.-H. Zheng, “Traditional Chinese medicines benefit to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 9715–9722, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J.-W. Wang, Z.-Q. Yang, C. Liu et al., “Cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: A Qualitative Study,” Patient Preference and Adherence, vol. 9, pp. 9–16, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y.-H. He, “General survey of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine researches on tumor metastasis,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Z. Kai, P. Michela, P. Antonio, and P. Annamaria, “Biological active ingredients of traditional Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus on treatment of diabetes: a systematic review,” Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 315–329, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Fu, Z. Wang, L. Huang et al., “Review of the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi),” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1275–1283, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Z. Li, Y.-N. Geng, J.-D. Jiang, and W.-J. Kong, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Berberine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 289264, 12 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S.-Y. Pan, S.-F. Zhou, S.-H. Gao et al., “New perspectives on how to discover drugs from herbal medicines: CAM'S outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 627375, 25 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D.-D. Zhao, N. Yu, X.-K. Li et al., “Antidiabetic and antioxidative effect of Jiang Tang Xiao Ke granule in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 475192, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. X. Xu, T. Liang, X. Lin et al., “Effect of the total extract of Averrhoacarambola (oxalidaceae) root on the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 2307–2316, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. E. Egede, J. L. Strom, J. Fernandes, R. G. Knapp, and A. Rojugbokan, “Effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income adults with type 2 diabetes (TACM-DM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial,” Trials, vol. 12, no. 1, article 231, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Kanoun, Z. B. Amor, B. Zouari, and F. B. Khalifa, “Insulin therapy may increase blood pressure levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 695–700, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Katoh, M. Peltonen, M. Zeniya et al., “Analysis of the Japanese diabetes risk score and fatty liver markers for incident diabetes in a Japanese cohort,” Primary Care Diabetes, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. Wicklow, K. Wittmeier, G. W. T' Jong et al., “Proposed trial: safety and efficacy of resveratrol for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated insulin resistance in adolescents who are overweight or obese adolescents—rationale and protocol,” Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1–9, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  39. W. Tian, H. Lei, R. Guan et al., “Icariside II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 9, pp. 5147–5157, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. A. H. Khattab, N. A. El-Shitany, I. Z. A. Abdallah, F. M. Yousef, and H. M. Alkreathy, “Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit extract against streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in rats: anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, Article ID 549743, 7 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. I. Kazeem, M. A. Akanji, and M. T. Yakubu, “Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome,” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 203–209, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Lin and Z. Sun, “Antiaging gene klotho attenuates pancreatic β-cell apoptosis in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 4298–4311, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. T. Shinjo, Y. Nakatsu, M. Iwashita et al., “High-fat diet feeding significantly attenuates anagliptin-induced regeneration of islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice,” Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 7, no. 1, article 50, pp. 1–6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Le Roy, M. Llopis, P. Lepage et al., “Intestinal microbiota determines development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice,” Gut, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1787–1794, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. A. Roberts and J. Yap, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): approach in the adolescent patient,” Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 423–431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Mudaliar, “Choice of early treatment regimen and impact on β-cell preservation in type 2 diabetes,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 876–887, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Raccah, R. G. Bretzel, D. Owens, and M. Ridlle, “When basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus is not enough—what next?” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 257–264, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. Kelder, L. Verschuren, B. van Ommen, A. J. van Gool, and M. Radonjic, “Network signatures link hepatic effects of anti-diabetic interventions with systemic disease parameters,” BMC Systems Biology, vol. 8, no. 1, article 108, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Szendroedi, E. Phielix, and M. Roden, “The role of mitochondria in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 92–103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Z. Xiong, L. Yuan, X. H. Guo et al., “Rejection of insulin therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes in China: reasons and recommendations,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 127, no. 20, pp. 3530–3536, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Lih, L. Pereira, R. H. Bishay et al., “A novel multidisciplinary intervention for long-term weight loss and glycaemic control in obese patients with diabetes,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 729567, 7 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H.-U. Haering, L. Merker, A. V. Christiansen et al., “Empagliflozin as add-on to metformin plus sulphonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 82–90, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. G. Amaral, A. O. Turati, M. Barone et al., “Melatonin synthesis impairment as a new deleterious outcome of diabetes-derived hyperglycemia,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 67–79, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. Tajima, T. Kadowaki, T. Okamoto et al., “Sitagliptin added to voglibose monotherapy improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Diabetes Investigation, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 595–604, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Rigacci, C. Miceli, C. Nediani et al., “Oleuropein aglycone induces autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway: a mechanistic insight,” Oncotarget, vol. 6, no. 34, pp. 35344–35357, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Hunnicut, Y. Liu, A. Richardson, and A. B. Salmon, “MsrA overexpression targeted to the mitochondria, but not cytosol, preserves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 10, Article ID e0139844, 16 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Ghosh, A. P. Lakshmanan, M. J. Hwang et al., “Metformin improves endothelial function in aortic tissue and microvascular endothelial cells subjected to diabetic hyperglycaemic conditions,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 412–421, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Tan, N. Vollmar, S. Benson et al., “Liver injury indicating fatty liver but not serologic NASH marker improves under metformin treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome,” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2015, Article ID 254169, 9 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. M. H. Christensen, K. Højlund, O. Hother-Nielsen et al., “Endogenous glucose production increases in response to metformin treatment in the glycogen-depleted state in humans: a randomised trial,” Diabetologia, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 2494–2502, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. M. González-Barroso, A. Anedda, E. Gallardo-Vara, M. Redondo-Horcajo, L. Rodríguez-Sánchez, and E. Rial, “Fatty acids revert the inhibition of respiration caused by the antidiabetic drug metformin to facilitate their mitochondrial β-oxidation,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Bioenergetics, vol. 1817, no. 10, pp. 1768–1775, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Fu, A. Bruckbauer, F. Li et al., “Interaction between metformin and leucine in reducing hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in diet-induced obese mice,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1426–1434, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. Shyangdan, C. Clar, N. Ghouri et al., “Insulin sensitisers in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 15, no. 38, pp. 1–110, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. E. Shaker, M. E. Houssen, E. M. Abo-Hashem, and T. M. Ibrahim, “Comparison of vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin in ameliorating carbon tetrachloride and diabetes induced hepatic oxidative stress,” Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 225–233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. Demirci, I. Ferah, C. Gundogdu et al., “Endothelin receptor inhibition with bosentan delays onset of liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic condition,” Drug Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 272–280, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus