Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 1720123, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1720123
Review Article

From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: Systematic Review of Gunnera perpensa L.

Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa

Received 1 October 2016; Revised 15 November 2016; Accepted 17 November 2016

Academic Editor: Wenyi Kang

Copyright © 2016 Alfred Maroyi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Bergman, C. Johansson, and E. Söderbäck, “Tansley Review No. 42: the Nostoc–gunnera symbiosis,” New Phytologist, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 379–400, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y.-L. Qiu, M. W. Chase, S. B. Hoot et al., “Phylogenetics of the hamamelidae and their allies: parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL,” International Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 159, no. 6, pp. 891–905, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, D. L. Nickrent et al., “Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences,” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 1–49, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Wanntorp, H.-E. Wanntorp, B. Oxelman, and M. Källersjö, “Phylogeny of Gunnera,” Plant Systematics and Evolution, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 85–107, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. P. Moore, G. G. Lindsey, J. M. Farrant, and W. F. Brandt, “An overview of the biology of the desiccation-tolerant resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia,” Annals of Botany, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Wanntorp, H.-E. Wanntorp, and M. Källersjö, “The identity of Gunnera manicata Linden ex André: resolving a Brazilian-Colombian enigma,” Taxon, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 493–497, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Fredes and G. Montenegro, “Chilean plants as a source of polyphenols,” in Natural Antioxidants and Biocides from Wild Medicinal Plants, C. L. Céspedes, D. A. Sampietro, D. S. Seigler, and M. Rai, Eds., pp. 116–136, CAB International, Boston, Mass, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. S. Skeffington and K. Hall, “The ecology, distribution and invasiveness of Gunnera L. species in Connemara, Western Ireland,” Biology and Environment, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 157–176, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. C. Mariotti, R. S. Schuh, J. M. Nunes et al., “Chemical constituents and pharmacological profile of Gunnera manicata L. extracts,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 148–154, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. D. C. Mariottil, F. Barreto, G. C. Schmitt et al., “Evaluation of anti-estrogenic or estrogenic activities of aqueous root extracts of Gunnera manicata L.,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 601–604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. D. C. Mariotti, F. Barreto, G. C. Schmitt et al., “Study of acute toxicity and investigation of the presence of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in the Gunnera manicata L. a species native to Southern Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 623–628, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. M. Pfeiffer and R. A. Voeks, “Biological invasions and biocultural diversity: linking ecological and cultural systems,” Environmental Conservation, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 281–293, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Molares and A. Ladio, “Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 10, no. 1, article 61, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Boutique and B. Verdcourt, “Haloragaceae,” in Flora of Tropical East Africa, E. Milne-Redhead and R. M. Polhill, Eds., pp. 1–4, Balkema, London, UK, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. Gerstner, “A preliminary check list of Zulu names of plants,” Bantu Studies, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 131–149, 1939. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. M. Watt and M. G. Breyer-Brandwijk, The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, E. S. Livingstone, London, UK, 1962.
  17. A. T. Bryant, Zulu Medicine and Medicine-Men, C. Struik, Cape Town, 1966.
  18. M. O. Schmitz, Wild Flowers of Lesotho, ESSA, Rome, Italy, 1982.
  19. D. J. H. Veale, K. I. Furman, and D. W. Oliver, “South African traditional herbal medicines used during pregnancy and childbirth,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 185–191, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Hutchings, A. H. Scott, G. Lewis, and A. B. Cunningham, Zulu Medicinal Plants: An Inventory, University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 1996.
  21. T. L. Kaido, D. J. H. Veale, I. Havlik, and D. B. K. Rama, “Preliminary screening of plants used in South Africa as traditional herbal remedies during pregnancy and labour,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 185–191, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. E. Van Wyk, B. Van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke, Medicinal Plants of South Africa, Briza, Pretoria, South Africa, 1997.
  23. C. A. Varga and D. J. H. Veale, “Isihlambezo: utilization patterns and potential health effects of pregnancy-related traditional herbal medicine,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 911–924, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B.-E. van Wyk and N. Gericke, People's Plants: A Guide to Useful Plants of Southern Africa, Briza, Pretoria, South Africa, 2000.
  25. M. A. Ngwenya, A. Koopman, and R. Williams, Zulu Botanical Knowledge: An Introduction, National Botanical Institute, Durban, South Africa, 2003.
  26. D. von Ahlenfeldt, N. R. Crouch, G. Nichols et al., Medicinal Plants Traded on South Africa's Eastern Seaboard, Ethekweni Parks Department and University of Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2003.
  27. L. J. McGaw, R. Gehring, L. Katsoulis, and J. N. Eloff, “Is the use of Gunnera perpensa extracts in endometritis related to antibacterial activity?” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. B. Maliehe, Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Lesotho, Mafeteng Development Project, Roma, Italy, 1997.
  29. A. P. M. M. Nzue, Use and conservation status of medicinal plants in the Cape Peninsula, Western Cape Province of South Africa [M.S. thesis], Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2009.
  30. M. M. Masafu, C. A. Mbajiorgu, L. E. Nemadodzi, and E. S. Kabine, “A study of natural habitats and uses of medicinal plants in Thulamela and JS Moroka Municipalities, South Africa,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 363–369, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1685–1693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. V. Buwa and J. Van Staden, “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants used against venereal diseases in South Africa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 139–142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Mugomeri, P. Chatanga, T. Raditladi, M. Makara, and C. Tarirai, “Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of local medicinal plants: towards a repository and monograph of herbal medicines in Lesotho,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 143–156, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. E. O. Iwalewa, L. J. McGaw, V. Naidoo, and J. N. Eloff, “Inflammation: the foundation of diseases and disorders. A review of phytomedicines of South African origin used to treat pain and inflammatory conditions,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 25, pp. 2868–2885, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. B. C. Simelane, O. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, C. T. Musabayane, M. Singh, and A. R. Opoku, “Lactogenic activity of rats stimulated by Gunnera perpensa L. (Gunneraceae) from South Africa,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 561–573, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. S. Grierson and A. J. Afolayan, “An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of wounds in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 327–332, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 83, no. 1, 7 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “Traditional veterinary medicine in the Alice district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 97, no. 9-10, pp. 375–379, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. B. Bhat, “Medicinal plants and traditional practices of Xhosa people in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape, South Africa,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 292–298, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Myer, ilTlifino yasendle, ilTlifino isiZulu: The ethnobotany,' historical ecology and nutrition of traditional vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal [M.S. dissertation], University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999.
  41. D. E. N. Mabogo, The ethnobotany of the vhavenda [M.S. thesis], University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 1990.
  42. C. Long, “Swaziland's flora: siSwati names and uses,” Swaziland National Trust Commission, Mbambane, 2005, http://www.sntc.org.sz/index.asp.
  43. A. Moteetee and B.-E. Van Wyk, “The medical ethnobotany of lesotho: a review,” Bothalia, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 209–228, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Jacot Guillarmod, Flora of Lesotho, Cramer, Lehre, Germany, 1971.
  45. E. J. Mendes, “Haloragaceae,” Flora Zambesiaca, vol. 4, pp. 79–81, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  46. A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 98, no. 11-12, pp. 589–597, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. L. Williams, The design of a risk assessment model to determine the impact of the herbal medicine trade on the Witwatersrand on resources of indigenous plant species [Ph.D. thesis], University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2007.
  48. A. B. Cunningham, “African medicinal plants: setting priorities at the interface between conservation and primary health care,” People and Plants Working Paper 1, UNESCO, Paris, France, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  49. D. Raimondo, L. von Staden, W. Foden et al., Red List of South African Plants, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, 2009.
  50. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), IUCN red list categories and criteria, Version 3.1, IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland, 2nd edition, 2012, http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria/2001-categories-criteria.
  51. J. E. Victor and M. Keith, “The orange list: a safety net for biodiversity in South Africa,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 100, no. 3-4, pp. 139–141, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. von Staden, D. Raimondo, and W. Foden, “Approach to red list assessments,” in Red list of South African Plants, D. Raimondo, L. von Staden, W. Foden et al., Eds., Strelitzia 25, pp. 6–16, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  53. L. Seleteng Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. Van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 170, pp. 184–200, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. B. C. Simelane, O. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, and A. R. Opoku, “In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Gunnera perpensa L. (Gunneraceae) from South Africa,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, no. 21, pp. 2181–2188, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. Mtunzi, E. Muleya, J. Modise, A. Sipamla, and E. Dikio, “Heavy metals content of some medicinal plants from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 757–761, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. B. Chigor, Development of conservation methods for Gunnera perpensa L.: an overexploited medicinal plant in the Eastern Cape, South Africa [Ph.D. thesis], University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa, 2014.
  57. K. B. Brookes and M. F. Dutton, “Bioactive components of the uteroactive medicinal plant, Gunnera perpensa (Ugobo),” South African Journal of Science, vol. 103, no. 5-6, pp. 187–189, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. E. Drewes, F. Khan, S. F. Van Vuuren, and A. M. Viljoen, “Simple 1,4-benzoquinones with antibacterial activity from stems and leaves of Gunnera perpensa,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 15, pp. 1812–1816, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. F. Khan, X. K. Peter, R. M. Mackenzie et al., “Venusol from Gunnera perpensa: structural and activity studies,” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1117–1121, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. R. Ndhlala, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “Plant composition, pharmacological properties and mutagenic evaluation of a commercial Zulu herbal mixture: Imbiza ephuzwato,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 663–674, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of medicinal plants against heterakis gallinarum in village chickens,” Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 7, no. 12, p. 247, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 131–138, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Nkomo and L. Kambizi, “Antimicrobial activity of Gunnera perpensa and Heteromorpha arborescens var. Abyssinica,” Journal of Medical plant Research, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1051–1055, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  64. L. J. McGaw, A. K. Jäger, and J. Van Staden, “Antibacterial, anthelmintic and anti-amoebic activity in South African medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 72, no. 1-2, pp. 247–263, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. Steenkamp, E. Mathivha, M. C. Gouws, and C. E. J. van Rensburg, “Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 353–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Nkomo, B. N. Nkeh-Chungag, L. Kambizi, E. J. Ndebia, and J. E. Iputo, “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of gunnera perpensa (gunneraceae),” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 263–269, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. J. Mathibe, J. Botha, and S. Naidoo, “Z-venusol, from Gunnera perpensa, induces apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells in vitro,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 102, pp. 228–233, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. B. Ozturk Sarikaya, “Acethylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and antioxidant properties of pyrogallol,” Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 761–766, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture; Fisheries and Food), Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques, Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), Norwich, UK, 1986.
  70. M. Mwale, P. J. Masika, and S. A. Materechera, “Effect of medicinal plants on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum,” Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. D. Liebhart and M. Hess, “Oral infection of turkeys with in vitro-cultured Histomonas meleagridis results in high mortality,” Avian Pathology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 223–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. Muleya, A. S. Ahmed, A. M. Sipamla, F. M. Mtunzi, and W. Mutatu, “Evaluation of anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties Artemisia afra, Gunnera perpensa and Eucomis autumnalis,” Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, vol. 4, article 312, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. B.-E. van Wyk, “A review of Khoi-San and Cape Dutch medical ethnobotany,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 331–341, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. E.-J. Lim, H.-J. Kang, H.-J. Jung, K. Kim, C.-J. Lim, and E.-H. Park, “Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-nociceptive activities of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde,” Biomolecules and Therapeutics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 231–236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. C. Allen, “Phagocytic leukocyte oxygenation activities and chemiluminescence: a kinetic approach to analysis,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 133, pp. 449–493, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  76. S. Kumar and A. K. Pandey, “Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 162750, 16 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. T. H. Khan, I. Lampronti, D. Martello et al., “Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 187–192, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. Koduru, D. S. Grierson, and A. J. Afolayan, “Ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,” Current Science, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 906–908, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. Pujol, Natur Africa: The Herbalist Handbook, Jean Pujol NaturaJ Healers Foundation, Durban, South Africa, 1990.
  80. P. N. Solis, C. W. Wright, M. M. Anderson, M. P. Gupta, and J. D. Phillipson, “A microwell cytotoxicity assay using Artemia salina (brine shrimp),” Planta Medica, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 250–252, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Gunnera perpensa L. (Gunneraceae),” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 13, pp. 2503–2513, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. K. B. Brookes and A. N. Smith, “Cytotoxicity of pregnancy-related traditional medicines,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 359–361, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. F. Doyle and R. Scogin, “A comparative phytochemical profile of the Gunneraceae,” New Zealand Journal of Botany, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 493–496, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. T. Felhaber, South African Traditional Healers' Primary Health Care Handbook, Kagiso, Cape Town, South Africa, 1997.
  85. A. M. Manyatsi, N. Mhazo, S. Msibi, and M. T. Masarirambi, “Utilisation of wetland plant resources for livelihood in Swaziland: the case of Lobamba Lomdzala area,” Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 262–268, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  86. E. Vhurumuku, “Knowledge, use and attitudes towards medicinal plants of pre-service teachers at a South African university,” Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 15–24, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  87. O. O. G. Amusan, “Some ethnoremedies used for HIV/AIDs and related diseases in Swaziland,” The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  88. O. O. G. Amusan, N. A. Sukati, and M. S. Shongwe, “Some phytomedicines from Shiselweni region of Swaziland,” Journal of Natural Remedies, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus