Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Acupuncture for Pain Management in Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies.

Study
(year)
Type of cancerSample sizesInterventionsAcupuncture point
selection
Frequency
Session duration
Main outcomes
Assessment tool of pain
value of main outcome
TCTC

Chen et al. [18]
(2013)
Pancreas3030EA + drugPlacebo + drug (three-step analgesic ladder)Jiaji (Ex-B2) points from
T8 to T12 bilaterally
30 min qd
3 days
Pain in score
NRS

Mi et al. [19]
(2010)
Stomach3230Fire needle + CDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)Fire needle point: BL17, BL18, BL21
Manual acupoint: CV12, ST25, and ST36
30 min qod
4 weeks
Reduction of pain level
VRS

Hu et al. [20]
(2005)
Liver20
16
18
20
20
20
A: wrist-ankle AT
B: wrist-ankle AT
C: AT + MS Contin
Codeine 30 mg tid
MS Contin
MS Contin
Ashi point, primary lesion10–12 h
10 days
Response rate (reduction of pain more than 1/2)
NRS plus VRS



Hu et al. [21]
(2004)
Liver3650Wrist-ankle ATDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)Ashi point, primary lesion9–12 h, qd or qod
10 days
Response rate
NRS

Wang et al. [22]
(2014)
Miscellaneous3838EA + CDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)Jiaji points from T2 to T6
Chest pain: BL13, BL43
Limbs pain: LI11, SJ5, GB30, and GB34
Headache: GB20
Low-back pain: BL23
Abdominal pain: SP6, ST36
15 min, qod
30 days
() Response rate
() KPS
NRS plus VRS

Liu [23]
(2011)
Liver3030AT + tramadol hcTramadol hc
100 mg q12 h
SP4, PC6, GB40, SJ5, SI3, BL62, LU7, KI6, LR3, and LR1430 min qd
4 weeks
() Reduction of pain level
() QOL
NRS

Shen et al. [24]
(2013)
Liver3030EADuragesicDU20, LI11, PC6, SP6, SP10, ST36, LR3, KI3, and GB4120 min qd
14 days
Pain in score
(100 mm VAS)

Sun and Yu [25]
(2000)
Liver8040ATMorphine 30 mg qnAshi point12 h qn
n.r.
Response rate (duration of pain relief more than 3 h)

Han and Chen [26]
(2012)
Liver2525Wrist-ankle ATDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)Ashi point10–12 h qd
10 days
Response rate
NRS

Dan et al. [27]
(1998)
Miscellaneous37
42
34
34
A: AT
B: AT + C
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
LI4, SJ6, and PC6
Chest pain: ST40, HT8
Pain in ribs: GB40, LR3
Abdominal pain: SP6, ST36
0.5–1.5 h qd or bid
10 days
Reduction of pain level
VRS


Qiao et al. [28]
(2008)
Miscellaneous3432AT + CDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)Back-shu points, Ashi point, ST3630 min/qd
14 days
Reduction of pain level
NRS plus VRS

Zhang et al. [29]
(2000)
Miscellaneous2222ATDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)LI4, PC6, Ashi point, and Back-shu points0.5–1 h bid
20 days
Reduction of pain level
VRS

Cui [30]
(2013)
Miscellaneous2020ATMorphineLI4, PC6, and Ashi point35 min bid
15 days
Response rate (degree of pain relief more than 60%)

Tan et al. [31]
(2012)
Miscellaneous37
38
31
32
36
33
Mild: AT + C
Moderate: AT + C
Severe: AT + C
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
LI4, PC6, Ashi point, and Back-shu points
Lung cancer: LI4, PC6, and LU6
Liver cancer: LI4, PC6, GB34, and LR6
Colon cancer: LI4, PC6, RN12, ST36, and SJ6
0.5–1 h qd
3 weeks
Reduction of pain level
VRS



Peng [32]
(2009)
Miscellaneous1111EA + AASham EA + sham AABased on syndrome differentiation, disease differentiation30 min qd
21 days
() Pain in score (100 mm
VAS)
() QLQ-C30

Dang and Yang [33]
(1995)
Stomach1616ATDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)ST36, SP6, ST34, PC6, LI11, LI4, and Ashi points
Chest pain: CV17, SP21, TE6, and GB34
Low-back pain: GV12, SI11, SI3, and GB39
Selecting 4~5 mean points and 2~4 auxiliary points each time, right and left were alternately treated
20 min qd-tid
2 months
() Response rate
() QOL
VRS

Peng et al. [34]
(2012)
Miscellaneous2324EA + CDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)LI4, PC6, ST36, and SP6
Back-shu points, front-mu points, and xi-cleft points related to pathological viscera
30 min qd
7 days
Response rate (degree of pain relief more than 31%)
NRS

Huang and Zhang [35]
(2012)
Miscellaneous4342AT + CDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)ST36, Ashi point, Back-shu points, and Jiaji points according to symptoms40 min qd
2 weeks
() Reduction of pain level
() KPS
VRS

Bian [36]
(1999)
Miscellaneous32
38
33
33
A: EA
B: EA + C
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
Drug (three-step analgesic ladder)
ST36, PC6, and SJ8
Chest pain: BL13
Gastric pain: BL20, BL21
Abdominal pain: SP6
Low-back pain: BL23
30 min bidResponse rate (duration of pain relief more than 12 h)

Zhang [37]
(2014)
Miscellaneous3030AT + CDrug (three-step analgesic ladder)Lung cancer: LI4, PC6, LU6, and ST36
Liver cancer: LI4, GB34, LR6, ST36, and LR3
Colon cancer: LI4, PC6, RN12, ST36, and SJ6
30 min qd
7 days
() Reduction of pain level
() QOL
NRS

Alimi et al. [38]
(2003)
Miscellaneous2930AASham AA (auricular seeds at nonacupoint)Ear points based on potential differenceOnce a month
2 months
Pain in score
(100 mm VAS)

T: treatment group, C: control group, AA: auricular-acupuncture, AT: acupuncture, EA: electroacupuncture, n.r.: not reported, NRS: numerical rating scale, VAS: visual analogue scale, and VRS: verbal rating scale.