Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 1867048, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1867048
Research Article

GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

1Department of Pharmacognosy, and Medicinal, Aromatic & Poisonous Plants Research Center (MAPPRC), College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pathology, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3Departments of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey
5Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, Mersin 10, Turkey

Received 22 February 2016; Revised 5 April 2016; Accepted 20 April 2016

Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo

Copyright © 2016 Mansour S. Al-Said et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO fact sheets No. 164 and 204: Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B, Revised October 2000, WHO, 6 pages, 2000.
  2. A. S. Negi, J. K. Kumar, S. Luqman, K. Shanker, M. M. Gupta, and S. P. S. Khanuja, “Recent advances in plant hepatoprotectives: a chemical and biological profile of some important leads,” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 746–772, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Ghosh, R. Ghosh, V. Mandal, and S. C. Mandal, “Recent advances in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 970–988, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Kotan, A. Cakir, F. Dadasoglu et al., “Antibacterial activities of essential oils and extracts of Turkish Achillea, Satureja and Thymus species against plant pathogenic bacteria,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 145–160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Ö. Bariş, M. Güllüce, F. Şahin et al., “Biological activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae),” Turkish Journal of Biology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 65–73, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Sökmen, M. Sökmen, D. Daferera et al., “The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae),” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 451–456, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. W. McLafferty and D. B. Stauffer, The Wiley/NBS Registry of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  8. W. A. König, D. Julain, and D. H. Hochmuth, Terpenoids and Related Constituents of Essential Oils, available from MassFinder 3.5; Hochmuth Scientific Software, Hamburg, Germany, 2006.
  9. R. P. Adams, Identification of Essential Oils Components by Gas Chromatography/Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy, Allured, Carol Stream, Ill, USA, 2001.
  10. ESO, The Complete Database of Essential Oils, Boelens Aroma Chemical Information Service, Huizen, Netherlands, 1999.
  11. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Acute Oral Toxicity no. 401, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 1993.
  12. S. A. Reitman and A. Frankel, “A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid and glutamic pyruvic transaminases,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. E. J. King and A. R. Armstrong, “Calcium, phosphorus and phosphate,” in Practical Clinical Biochemistry, H. Varley, Ed., CBS, New Delhi, India, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. Fiala, A. E. Fiala, and B. Dixon, “Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in transplantable, chemically induced rat hepatomas and ‘spontaneous’ mouse hepatomas,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1393–1401, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Stiehl, “Hyperbilirubinemia in liver diseases,” Fortschritte der Medizin, vol. 100, no. 18, pp. 842–845, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. N. Demacher, A. G. Hijmnas, H. E. Vos-Janssen, A. van't Laar, and A. P. Jansen, “A study of the use of polyethylene glycol in estimating cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1775–1778, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  17. L. B. Foster and R. T. Dunn, “Stable reagents for determination of serum triglycerides by a colorimetric Hantzsch condensation method,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 338–340, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Burstein and H. R. Scholnick, “Turbidimetric estimation of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins in human sera after precipitation by sodium lauryl sulfate,” Biomedicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 16–19, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. C. Utley, F. Bernheim, and P. Hochslein, “Effect of sulfhydryl reagent on peroxidation in microsome,” Archives Biochemistry and Biophyssics, vol. 260, pp. 521–531, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  20. J. Sedlak and R. H. Lindsay, “Estimation of total, protein-bound, and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman's reagent,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 25, pp. 192–205, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. F. Culling, Handbook of Histopathological and Histochemical Techniques, Butterworth, London, UK, 3rd edition, 1974.
  22. W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier, and C. Berset, “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. N. Mohd-Esa, F. S. Hern, A. Ismail, and C. L. Yee, “Antioxidant activity in different parts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts and potential exploitation of the seeds,” Food Chemistry, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 1055–1060, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Dehghan and F. Elmi, “Essential oil combination of three species of Achillea growing wild in East Azarbayjan-Iran,” Advanced Herbal Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  25. K. Morteza-Semnani, M. Akbarzadeh, and K. Moshiri, “The essential oil composition of Achillea biebersteinii afan,” Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 200–203, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  26. N. Tabanca, B. Demirci, I. Gürbüz et al., “Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 701–706, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. K. Akkol, U. Koca, I. Pesin, and D. Yilmazer, “Evaluation of the wound healing potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by in vivo excision and incision models,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 474026, 7 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. S. Al-Sokari, N. A. A. Ali, L. Monzote, and M. A. Al-Fatimi, “Evaluation of antileishmanial activity of Albaha medicinal plants against Leishmania amazonensis,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 938747, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. I. Abd-Alla, N. M. M. Shalaby, M. A. Hamed, N. S. El-Rigal, S. N. Al-Ghamdi, and J. Bouajila, “Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. O. Recknagel, E. A. Glende Jr., J. A. Dolak, and R. L. Waller, “Mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 139–154, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. S. Britton and B. R. Bacon, “Role of free radicals in liver diseases and hepatic fibrosis,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 343–348, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. V. Badarinath, K. Mallikarjuna Rao, C. Madhu Sudhana Chetty, S. Ramkanth, T. V. S. Rajan, and K. Gnanaprakash, “A review on in-vitro antioxidant methods: comparisions, correlations and considerations,” International Journal of PharmTech Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1276–1285, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Al-Yahya, R. Mothana, M. Al-Said et al., “Attenuation of CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatonephrotoxicity by Saudi Sidr honey in rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 569037, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Dadkhah, F. Fatemi, S. Ababzadeh, K. Roshanaei, M. Alipour, and B. S. Tabrizi, “Potential preventive role of Iranian Achillea wilhelmsiiC. Koch essential oils in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity,” Botanical Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. Yaeesh, Q. Jamal, A.-U. Khan, and A. H. Gilani, “Studies on hepatoprotective, antispasmodic and calcium antagonist activities of the aqueous-methanol extract of Achillea millefolium,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 546–551, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Hosbas, A. Hartevioglu, M. Pekcan, and D. D. Orhan, “Assessment of hepatoprotective activity of Achillea biebersteinii ethanol extract on carbon tetrachlorideinduced liver damage in rats,” FABAD Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. D. Kitts, Y. V. Yuan, and D. V. Godin, “Plasma and lipoprotein lipid composition and hepatic antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (WKY) rats,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 202–209, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Li, H. Y. Tan, N. Wang et al., “The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in liver diseases,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 26087–26124, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. AlSaid, R. Mothana, M. Raish et al., “Evaluation of the effectiveness of Piper cubeba extract in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 359358, 11 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar