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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2396404, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2396404
Research Article

Chamaecyparis obtusa Suppresses Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Republic of Korea
2Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Republic of Korea
3Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Republic of Korea
4APLUS AROMA, Iksan 54627, Republic of Korea
5College of Education, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Republic of Korea
6Wonkwang Research Institute for Food Industry, Iksan 54538, Republic of Korea

Received 25 January 2016; Accepted 14 March 2016

Academic Editor: Xiangqian Liu

Copyright © 2016 Eun-Hee Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is known to have antimicrobial effects and has been used as a medicinal plant and in forest bathing. This study aimed to evaluate the anticariogenic activity of essential oil of C. obtusa on Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the most important bacterial causes of dental caries and dental biofilm formation. Essential oil from C. obtusa was extracted, and its effect on bacterial growth, acid production, and biofilm formation was evaluated. C. obtusa essential oil exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth over 0.025 mg/mL, with 99% inhibition at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The bacterial biofilm formation and acid production were also significantly inhibited at the concentration greater than 0.025 mg/mL. The result of LIVE/DEAD® BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit showed a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect on S. mutans and almost all bacteria were dead over 0.8 mg/mL. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression of some virulence factors such as brpA, gbpB, gtfC, and gtfD was also inhibited. In GC and GC-MS analysis, the major components were found to be α-terpinene (40.60%), bornyl acetate (12.45%), α-pinene (11.38%), β-pinene (7.22%), β-phellandrene (3.45%), and α-terpinolene (3.40%). These results show that C. obtusa essential oil has anticariogenic effect on S. mutans.