Table 1: Chemical composition of various essential oils and their antibacterial activity against human pathogens.

MAPsPart usedMajor chemical compoundsInhibited microorganismsReferences

Achillea clavennaeLeaves and flowersCamphor, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, -caryophyllene, linalool, geranyl acetateKlebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa[18]

Achillea fragrantissimaAerial partsYomogi alcohol, 1,8-cineole, artemisia alcohol, thujoneStaphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli[19]

Achillea ligusticaAerial partsViridiflorol, terpinen-4-olStreptococcus mutans[20]

Artemisia absinthiumAerial partsMyrcene, trans-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetateE. coli, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis[21]

Artemisia biennisAerial parts(Z)-Beta-ocimene, (E)-beta-farnesene, acetylenes, (Z)- and (E)-En-yn-dicycloethersE. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis[21]

Artemisia canaAerial partsSantolina triene, alpha-pinene, campheneE. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis[21]

Artemisia dracunculusAerial partsMethylchavicol, methyl eugenol, beta-phellandrene, terpinoleneE. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, Shewanella putrefaciens[21, 22]

Artemisia longifoliaAerial partsAlpha-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineoleE. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis[21]

Artemisia frigidaAerial parts1,8-Cineole, methylchavicol, camphorE. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis[21]

Cinnamomum zeylanciumBark, leavesCinnamaldehydeEnterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycobacterium smegmatis[23, 24]

Copaifera officinalisEssential oil-Caryophyllene, -bisabolene, germacrene B, -copaene, germacrene D, -humulene, -cadineneS. aureus, E. coli[25]

Coriandrum sativumLeaves2E-Decenal, decanal, 2E-decen-1-ol, n-decanolS. aureus, Bacillus spp., E. coli, Salmonella typhi, K. pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, P. aeruginosa[26, 27]

Cuminum cyminumLeaves-Terpin-7-al, -terpinene, -pinene, cuminaldehydeS. typhimurium, E. coli[28]

Cymbopogon citratusFruitEthanolic compoundsEnterobacteriaceae, S. aureus[29]

Cymbopogon nardusLeaves, stems2-Carene, beta-citronellalBrochothrix thermosphacta, E. coli, Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, S. typhimurium, S. putrefaciens[22]

Cyperus longusArial part-Himachalene, -humulene, -himachaleneS. aureus, L. monocytogenes, L. monocytogenes, E. faecium, S. Enteritidis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa[30]

Daucus littoralisLeaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruitsGermacrene D, acorenone BS. aureus, E. coli[31]

Dracocephalum foetidumLeavesn-Mentha-1,8-dien-10-al, limonene, geranial, neralB. subtilis, S. aureus, M.luteus, E. hirae, S. mutans, E. coli[32]

Eremanthus erythropappsLeaves(Z)-Caryophyllene, germacrene D, viridiflorol, p-cymene, -terpineneS. epidermidis[33]

Eugenia caryophyllataFlower budsPhenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehydeS. epidermidis[34]

Euphrasia rostkovianaEssential oiln-Hexadecanoic acid, thymol, myristic acid, linaloolE. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa[35]

Foeniculum vulgareLeavesTrans-anethole, methylchavicol, limoneneS. typhimurium, E. coli[28]

Fortunella margaritaLeavesGurjunene, eudesmol, muuroleneB. subtilis, S. aureus, Sarcina luta, S. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa[36]

Juniperus phoeniceaArial part-Pinene, -phellandrene, -terpinyl acetateS. aureus, L. monocytogenes, L. monocytogenes, E. faecium, S. Enteritidis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa[30]

Laurus nobilisArial partEucalyptol (1,8-cineole), linaloolMycobacterium smegmatis, E. coli[37]

Lavandula x intermedia “Provence” (Blue Lavandin) (a cross between L. angustifolia, L. Latifolia)Arial partCamphor, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole), linalool, -pinene, -pineneM. smegmatis, E. coli[37]

Juniperus excelsaLeaves and twigs-Pinene, -cedrol, -car-3-eneS. aureus [38]

Lippia sidoidesLeavesThymol and carvacrolS. mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. mitis[39]

Mentha piperitaArial partS. aureus, S. typhimurium, V. parahaemolyticus[40]

Mentha pulegiumArial partPiperitone, piperitenone, -terpineol, pulegoneS. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. typhimurium, V. cholera, L. monocytogenes, E. faecium, S. Enteritidis[30]

Mentha suaveolensArial partPulegone, piperitone, cis-cis-p-menthenolide, limonene germacreneLactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, S. xylosus[41]

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil)Essential oilTerpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, -terpinene, -terpinene, terpinoleneE. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, M. avium, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, S. pneumonia[42, 43]

Momordica charantiaSeedTrans-nerolidol, apiole, cis-dihydrocarve,ol germacrene DE. coli, S. aureus[44]

Myrtus communis LeavesEugenol, -terpineol, -terpineneS. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. durans, Salmonella Typhi, E. coli, B. subtilis, M. tuberculosis, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, E. cloacae[30, 45]

Nigella sativaSeedsThymoquinone, p-cymene, -thujene, thymohydroquinone, longifoleneS.  aureus, B.  cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa[46]

Ocimum gratissimumLeavesEugenol, methyl eugenol, cis-ocimene, trans-ocimene, -pinene, camphorS. aureus, Bacillus spp. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae[26, 47]

Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlowers and leavesEugenol, borneol, linalool, methyl eugenolB. subtilis, S. aureus, Citrobacter youngae, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Micrococcus spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp.[48]

Origanum vulgareLeaves, Arial partCarvacrol, thymol, -terpinene, trans-sabinene hydrate, cis-piperitol, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, linaloolClostridium botulinum, C. perfringens, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Sarcina lutea, M. flavus, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca[4956]

Ocimum basilicumLeaves, stems-Terpinene, methylchavicolBrochothrix thermosphacta, E. coli, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, S. typhimurium, S. putrefaciens, M. flavus[22, 57]

Petroselinum sativumLeaves, stemsMyristicin, apiol, 1,2,3,4-tetramethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)- benzeneB. thermosphacta, E. coli, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, S. typhimurium, S. putrefaciens[22]

Piper nigrumEssential oilLimonene, -3-carene, -pinene, -caryophyllene, -pinene, sabinene, -felandeno, myrcene, para-cymene, linalool, terpinolene, -selinene, 1,8 cineole, -terpinene, -humulene, -copaene, eugenol, terpinen-4-ol, camphene, safroleS. aureus, E. coli[25]

Pimpinella anisumSeedTrans-anetholeS. typhimurium, E. coli[58]

Plectranthus barbatus Leaves(Z)-Caryophyllene, germacrene D, viridiflorol, p-cymene, -terpineneS. epidermidis[4, 33]

P. amboinicusLeaves(Z)-Caryophyllene, germacrene D, viridiflorol, p-cymene, -terpineneS. epidermidis[4, 33]

Plectranthus neochilusLeaves-Pinene, -pinene, trans-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxideE. faecalis, S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis, S. mitis, L. casei, S. mutans[4, 59]

Pogostemon cablin LeavesPatchoulol, -guaieno; gurjunene-, -guaiene, aromadendrene, -patchouleneK. pneumonia, H. pylori, E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis[1, 6064]

Rosmarinus officinalisLeaves, flowerCamphor, camphene, limonene, geraniol, myrcene, linalool benzoylacetate, linalool, -pinene, -terpinolene, bornyl acetate, borneolE. coli, S. typhimurium, B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, S. agalactiae, S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, E. faecalis, B. thermosphacta, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, S. typhimurium, S. putrefaciens, M. smegmatis[22, 37, 65, 66]

Satureja hortensisArial partCarvacrol, thymol, -terpineneC. botulinum, C. perfringens,[49]

Salvia sclareaArial partLinalool, linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, - ocimene acetate, caryophyllene oxideS. aureus, S. agalactiae, S. epidermis, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, E. faecalis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium[6770]

Salvia officinalisArial part-Thujone, camphor, 1,8-cineole, -pineneS. aureus, P. stuartii, P. stuartii, E. coli, Shigella sonnei, Sarcina lutea, M. flavus, B. thermosphacta, E. coli, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes[17, 22, 70]

Salvia lavandulifoliaEssential oilCamphor, -thujone, beta-thujone, camphene, -pinene, terpineolP. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, E. faecalis[68, 70]

Satureja cuneifoliaAerial partsCarvacrol and p-cymeneE. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, S. sonnei, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis[71]

Struchium sparganophoraLeaves-Caryophyllene, germacrene A, -humulene, germacrene DS. typhi, B. cereus, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis[72]

Syzygium aromaticum Leaves, flower budEugenol, eugenylacetateP. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae[22, 25]

Syzygium cuminiLeaves-Pinene, -pinene, trans- caryophyllene, 1,3,6-octatriene, delta-3-carene, -caryophyllene, -limoneneE. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, N. gonorrhoeae, B. subtilis, S. aureus[73]

Trachyspermum ammiSeedsK. pneumoniae, E. coli, S. aureus[74]

Thymus vulgarisArial partThymol, linalool, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, eugenol, camphor, camphene, -pinene, borneol, -pineneL. monocytogenes, E. coli,S. typhimurium, S. aureus, C. botulinum, C. perfringens, S.  sonnei, S. lutea, M.  flavus, B. thermosphacta, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, S. putrefaciens[22, 40, 49, 53, 54, 75, 76]

Thymus zygisEssential oilS. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, E. coli[50]

Thymus mastichinaLeaves, stemsm-Thymol, carvacrol, trans-caryophylleneB. thermosphacta, E. coli, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, S. typhimurium, S. putrefaciens[22]

Thymus kotschyanusArial partCarvacrol, 1,8 cineole, thymol, borneol, E-caryophylleneS. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. cereus, E. coli[77]

Thuja sp. (Thuja plicata, Thuja occidentalis)Essential oilAlpha-thujone and beta-thujoneP. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. coli[68]

Verbena officinalisArial partBorneol, geranoilS. aureus, E. coli, S. typhimurium, L. monocytogenes[78]

Warionia saharaeArial part-Eudesmol, trans-nerolidol, linalool, 1,8 cineole, camphor, p-cymene, terpinen-4-olS. aureus, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli[79]