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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 3803657, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3803657
Research Article

Protective Effects of L-Malate against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China

Received 17 October 2015; Accepted 22 December 2015

Academic Editor: José L. Ríos

Copyright © 2016 Shiao Ding et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. To investigate the protective effects of L-malate against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham (sham), an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model group (model), an DMF pretreated group (DMF), and 5 L-malate pretreated groups (15, 60, 120, 240, or 480 mg/kg, gavage) before inducing myocardial ischemia. Plasma LDH, cTn-I, TNF-, hs-CRP, SOD, and GSH-PX were measured 3 h later I/R. Areas of myocardial infarction were measured; hemodynamic parameters during I/R were recorded. Hearts were harvested and Western blot was used to quantify Nrf2, Keap1, HO-1, and NQO-1 expression in the myocardium. Results. L-malate significantly reduced LDH and cTn-I release, reduced myocardial infarct size, inhibited expression of inflammatory cytokines, and partially preserved heart function, as well as increasing antioxidant activity after myocardial I/R injury. Western blot confirmed that L-malate reduced Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 in ischemic myocardial tissue, upregulated expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, which are major targets of Nrf2. Conclusions. L-malate may protect against myocardial I/R injury in rats and this may be associated with activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway.