Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 3862916, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3862916
Review Article

Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: What Strength Does It Have? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
2Key Laboratory of Acupuncture of Tianjin, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China

Received 21 May 2016; Revised 8 October 2016; Accepted 23 October 2016

Academic Editor: Chang-Gue Son

Copyright © 2016 Bo Pang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. J. Talley and A. C. Ford, “Functional dyspepsia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 373, no. 19, pp. 1853–1863, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. V. Heatley and B. J. Rathbone, “Dyspepsia: a dilemma for doctors?” The Lancet, vol. 330, no. 8562, pp. 779–782, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. C. Ford and P. Moayyedi, “Managing dyspepsia,” Current Gastroenterology Reports, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 288–294, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Vanheel and R. Farré, “Changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure in functional dyspepsia,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 142–149, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. J. Talley, D. G. Colin-Jones, K. L. Koch, M. Koch, O. Nyren, and V. Stanghellini, “Functional dyspepsia: a classification with guidelines for diagnosis and management,” Gastroenterology International, vol. 4, pp. 145–160, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. C. Ford, A. Marwaha, R. Sood, and P. Moayyedi, “Global prevalence of, and risk factors for, uninvestigated dyspepsia: a meta-analysis,” Gut, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1049–1057, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, http://www.romecriteria.org/assets/pdf/19_RomeIII_apA_885-898.pdf.
  8. D. A. Drossman, “Rome III: the new criteria,” Chinese Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 181–185, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. A. Drossman, “The functional gastrointestinal disorders and the Rome III process,” Gastroenterology, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1377–1390, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Tack and N. J. Talley, “Functional dyspepsia-symptoms, definitions and validity of the Rome III criteria,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 134–141, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Brun and B. Kuo, “Review: functional dyspepsia,” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 145–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Wang, X. Liao, L. Xiong et al., “The clinical overlap between functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome based on Rome III criteria,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 8, article 43, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. J. Talley, V. Stanghellini, R. C. Heading, K. L. Koch, J. R. Malagelada, and G. N. J. Tytgat, “Functional gastroduodenal disorders,” Gut, vol. 45, supplement 2, pp. II37–II42, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. E. Lacy, N. J. Talley, G. R. Locke III et al., “Review article: current treatment options and management of functional dyspepsia,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Camilleri and V. Stanghellini, “Current management strategies and emerging treatments for functional dyspepsia,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 187–194, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Mönkemüller and P. Malfertheiner, “Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 2694–2700, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. J. O. Van Zanten, C. Cleary, N. J. Talley et al., “Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia: a systematic analysis of trial methodology with recommendations for design of future trials,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 660–673, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. H. Yan, M. Yue, Y. Li, and L. Zhu, “Investigation and analysis on adverse drug reaction of functional dyspepsia,” Modern Digestion & Intervention, vol. 3, pp. 282–284, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Schneider, K. Streitberger, and S. Joos, “Acupuncture treatment in gastrointestinal diseases: a systematic review,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 25, pp. 3417–3424, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. M. Yao, S. K. Yao, R. X. Zhang, and L. L. Chang, “Effect of electroacupuncture stimulation on visceral sensitivity in patients with functional dyspepsia,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 4, pp. 228–231, 2006 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Yin and J. D. Z. Chen, “Gastrointestinal motility disorders and acupuncture,” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, vol. 157, no. 1-2, pp. 31–37, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Takahashi, “Acupuncture for functional gastrointestinal disorders,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 408–417, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y.-L. Xu, J. Xiong, Y.-H. Du, and X.-M. Xu, “Classification basis and train of thought of functional dyspepsia in disease menu of acupuncture,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 189–192, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. H. Du, J. Li, D. W. Sun et al., “Study on modern disease menu of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in China,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 373–378, 2007 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. H. Du, G. P. Li, X. Lin, and J. Li, “Research on disease menu of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in digestive system,” Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 2006 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Fu, Y. H. Du, B. Li, L. Shi, J. Li, and Z. Y. Li, “Study on effectiveness grade of medical conditions by acupuncture and moxibustion based on fuzzy comprehends estimation technique: diseases of the digestive system,” China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, vol. 9, pp. 2303–2307, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. Y. H. Du, Modern Disease Menu of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Therapy, People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2009 (Chinese).
  28. J. Deeks, J. Higgins, and D. Altman, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. 0, 2011.
  29. D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 6, no. 7, Article ID e1000097, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. T. T. Ma, X. P. Tian, S. Y. Yu, and F. R. Liang, “The application of scales on functional dyspepsia trials abroad and its implication for clinical studies of acupuncture in China,” Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 11, pp. 2120–2121, 2010 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  31. N. J. Talley, M. Verlinden, and M. Jones, “Validity of a new quality of life scale for functional dyspepsia: a United States multicenter trial of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 2390–2397, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Digestive Subcommittee of China's Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine Committee, “Consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of functional dyspepsia by integrative medicine,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 11, pp. 1545–1549, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  33. D. Atkins, D. Best, P. Briss A, M. Eccles, Y. Falck-Ytter, and S. Flottorp, “Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations,” British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7454, p. 1490, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. B. Adam, T. Liebregts, K. Saadat-Gilani, B. Vinson, and G. Holtmann, “Validation of the gastrointestinal symptom score for the assessment of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 357–363, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. E. Ware Jr. and C. D. Sherbourne, “The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (Sf-36): I. conceptual framework and item selection,” Medical Care, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 473–483, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Deeks, J. Higgins, and D. Altman, “Chapter 8: assessing risk of bias in included studies: cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1. 0,” in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. 0, vol. 5, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Oremus, C. Wolfson, A. Perrault, L. Demers, F. Momoli, and Y. Moride, “Interrater reliability of the modified Jadad quality scale for systematic reviews of Alzheimer's disease drug trials,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 232–236, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. R. Jadad, R. A. Moore, D. Carroll et al., “Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Deeks, J. Higgins, and D. Altman, “Chapter 9: analyzing data and undertaking meta-analyses: cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0,” Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0, vol. 5, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  40. QP. Chen, Clinical study on acupuncture for smoothing the liver and regulating the stomach in the treatment of functional dyspepsia [M.S. Thesis], Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China, 2013.
  41. Y. Hu, Therapeutic effect observation on functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture by differentiation of symptoms and signs and its effect on serum gastrin [M.S. thesis], Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2012 (Chinese).
  42. Y. L. Jin, Therapeutic effect observation and mechanism discussion on acupuncture for the treatment of functional dyspepsia [M.S. thesis], Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China, 2011 (Chinese).
  43. D. D. Li, Clinical evaluation on curative effect of differentiation acupuncture for functional dyspepsia [M.S. thesis], Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2014 (Chinese).
  44. W. R. Liu, “Therapeutic observation of acupuncture in treating functional dyspepsia and its effect on serum ghrelin,” Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 10, pp. 914–916, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  45. C.-Y. Ma, Q. Huang, W.-J. Wan et al., “Effects of syndrome-differentiation acupuncture on life quality in patients with functional dyspepsia,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 125–129, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y.-C. Park, W. Kang, S.-M. Choi, and C.-G. Son, “Evaluation of manual acupuncture at classical and nondefined points for treatment of functional dyspepsia: a randomized-controlled trial,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 879–884, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. K. Shiu, Q. Chen, Q. Hou, and Y. L. Jiang, “Clinical observation of ziwuliuzhu acupuncture therapy on functional dyspepsia with stagnation of liver qi,” Journal of Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 92–95, 2014 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  48. S. X. Tang, Z. H. Xu, P. Tang, and L. X. Liang, “Clinical research of acupuncture therapy for functional dyspepsia,” Journal of Sichuan of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 4, pp. 101–102, 2006 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  49. J. J. Wang, X. F. Rong, and Y. Ding, “Observation on clinical effect of selecting acupuncture point along channel for treating functional dyspepsia postprandial distress syndrome in 35 cases,” Chongqing Medical University, vol. 14, pp. 1918–1920, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  50. D. J. Wang, X. R. Chang, J. Yan et al., “Comparative study on therapeutic effect between acupuncture at special acupuncture points and non-specific acupuncture points in Foot Yangming Meridian for functional dyspepsia,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 8, pp. 703–708, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  51. Y. Xu, L. N. Liu, Z. J. Yang, Y. B. Cheng, R. X. Bai, and X. H. Jia, “Clinical observation on old ten needling combined with tiaoshen point in treatment of functional dyspepsia,” Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 2404–2406, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  52. M. Yang, Electroacupuncture treatment of functional dyspepsia from clinical research [M.S. thesis], Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China, 2009 (Chinese).
  53. S. Y. Yu, Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia: a multi-center randomized controlled trial [M.S. thesis], Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China, 2010.
  54. W. Zhang, The clinical observation of shu mu with electroacupuncture treatment of functional dyspepsia [M.S. thesis], Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2009 (Chinese).
  55. J. Zhao, H. L. Yan, N. Liu, and Z. M. Shi, “Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture combined with dialectical acupuncture points in the treatment of 60 cases with functional dyspepsia,” Journal of Emergency of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 9, pp. 1636–1638, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  56. Gastrointestinal Dynamics Group, Chinese Society of Digestive Diseases, and Chinese Medical Association, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyspepsia in China (Dalian, 2007),” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 114–117, 2008 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  57. J. H. Littell, J. Corcoran, and V. Pillai, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis, Oxford University Press, 2008.
  58. K.-N. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-H. Cho, “Efficacy of acupuncture treatment for functional dyspepsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 759–766, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. X. W. Wu, H. Z. Ji, L. E. Xu, and F. Y. Wang, “The effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on functional dyspepsia compared with prokinetic agents: a meta-analysis,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 100–104, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  60. X. F. Leng, Systematic analysis on acupuncture treatment for functional dyspepsia [M.S. thesis], Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China, 2013 (Chinese).
  61. H. Zhu, Cochrane systematic analysis on acupuncture treatment for functional dyspepsia [M.S. thesis], Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2008 (Chinese).
  62. L. Lan, F. Zeng, G. J. Liu, L. Ying, X. Wu, and F. R. Liang, “Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 10, Article ID CD008487, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  63. G. H. Guyatt, A. D. Oxman, G. E. Vist, R. Kunz, Y. Falck-Ytter, and H. J. Schünemann, “GRADE: what is ‘quality of evidence’ and why is it important to clinicians?” British Medical Journal, vol. 336, no. 7651, pp. 995–998, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Z. Yu, L. Luo, Y. Li et al., “Different manual manipulations and electrical parameters exert different therapeutic effects of acupuncture,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 754–758, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. M. Langevin, P. M. Wayne, H. MacPherson et al., “Paradoxes in acupuncture research: strategies for moving forward,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 180805, 11 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. Moher, K. F. Schulz, and D. G. Altman, “The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomized trials,” BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol. 1, no. 1, article 2, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. X. P. Tian, Y. Li, T. T. Ma, and F. R. Liang, “Review of efficacy index of acupuncture for functional dyspepsia,” Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 25, pp. 1584–1585, 2008 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  68. D. G. Finniss, T. J. Kaptchuk, F. Miller, and F. Benedetti, “Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9715, pp. 686–695, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. I. Baeumler, J. Fleckenstein, S. Takayama, M. Simang, T. Seki, and D. Irnich, “Effects of acupuncture on sensory perception: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 12, Article ID e113731, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Vincenzo, C. Roberto, and C. Tosetti, “8 relevance of gastrointestinal motor disturbances in functional dyspepsia,” Bailliere's Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 533–544, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. MacPherson, D. G. Altman, R. Hammerschlag et al., “Revised standards for reporting interventions in clinical trials of acupuncture (STRICTA): extending the CONSORT statement,” Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 140–155, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. MacPherson, A. White, M. Cummings, K. A. Jobst, K. Rose, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Standards for reporting interventions in controlled trials of acupuncture: the STRICTA recommendations,” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. B. Mao, G. Wang, T. Fan et al., “Assessing the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials in Traditional Chinese Medicine,” Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 880–887, 2007 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Lee, W.-K. Moon, and S.-H. Cho, “Does the effect of acupuncture depend on needling sensation and manipulation?” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 207–214, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Z. H. Meng, “The quantity-effect relationship of acupuncture,” World Chinese Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 1581–1585, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  76. G. Litscher and G. Opitz, “Technical parameters for laser acupuncture to elicit peripheral and central effects: state-of-the-art and short guidelines based on results from the Medical University of Graz, the German Academy of Acupuncture, and the scientific literature,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 697096, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. P. Marcus, “Towards a dose of acupuncture,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 78–82, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. Z.-P. Liu, T. Yin, X.-G. Guan et al., “Primary study on objective evaluation parameter and method of acupuncture deqi and maneuver,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 29, pp. 119–121, 2005 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. Park, J. Park, H. Lee, and H. Lee, “Does Deqi (needle sensation) exist?” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Kong, R. Gollub, T. Huang et al., “Acupuncture De Qi, from qualitative history to quantitative measurement,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1059–1070, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. MacPherson and A. Asghar, “Acupuncture needle sensations associated with De Qi: a classification based on experts' ratings,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 633–637, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. W. Kou, I. Gareus, J. D. Bell et al., “Quantification of DeQi sensation by visual analog scales in healthy humans after immunostimulating acupuncture treatment,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 753–765, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. Zhou and P. Benharash, “Effects and mechanisms of acupuncture based on the principle of meridians,” JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 190–193, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. J. Jia, J. P. Xie, Y. Nong, W. Li, and X. Chen, “Review on contrast of traditional hand-acupuncture and electroacupuncture,” Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 4, pp. 62–63, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  85. V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. S. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 193–205, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. C. Vincent and G. Lewith, “Placebo controls for acupuncture studies,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 199–202, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. D. Huang and C. D. Yu, “Placebo control methods in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion abroad,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 10, pp. 25–27, 2003 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  88. H.-L. Liu, Y. Zhang, J.-D. Li, P. Cheng, and L.-P. Wang, “Design and practice of acupuncture placebo-controlled method in clinical studies of acupuncture,” Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 1133–1135, 2008 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. Park, A. White, H. Lee, and E. Ernst, “Development of a new sham needle,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 110–112, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. R. White, J. Filshie, and T. M. Cummings, “Clinical trials of acupuncture: consensus recommendations for optimal treatment, sham controls and blinding,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 237–245, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. W. B. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Y. Lin et al., “Review of acupuncture research in recent 50 years and future research directions,” World Science and Technology, vol. 5, pp. 99–104, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  92. J. Zhu, P. Fu, J. Liang, K. Cheng, and Y. P. Wang, “Advances in studies on acupuncture points,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 3, pp. 58–61, 2003 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar