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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4391375, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4391375
Review Article

Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

1Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Aras 9 Bangunan FF3, UiTM Puncak Alam, Bandar Baru Puncak Alam, 42300 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Received 31 May 2016; Accepted 18 July 2016

Academic Editor: Manel Santafe

Copyright © 2016 Noor Azuin Suliman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.