Table 2: Effects on skeletal muscle for each botanical.

EffectBotanicalsPhysiologyStudyAuthors

Downregulation of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expressionKorean Citrus aurantium L.10, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mLRat skeletal muscle cellsKim et al., 2012 [7]

Suppression or inhibition of NF-BKorean Citrus aurantium L.10, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mLRat skeletal muscle cellsKim et al., 2012 [7]
Eugenia punicifolia2 mg/mLMale mdx dystrophic miceLeite et al., 2010 [8]
Camellia sinensis0.25% or 0.5% green tea extract, at the age of 42 days C57BL/6J and mdx miceEvans et al., 2010 [9]

Increase of NF-BPanax ginsengDS 20, 60, and 120 mg/kgRatsYu et al., 2014 [10]

Induction of the phosporylation of AMPK Glycine max100 µMC2C12 myotubesHirasaka et al., 2013 [11]

Decrease of MURF-1 promoter activityGlycine max100 µMC2C12 myotubesHirasaka et al., 2013 [11]

Suppression of LPS-induced phosphorylation of the MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK pERK) Korean Citrus aurantium L.10, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mLRat skeletal muscle cellsKim et al., 2012 [7]
Eugenia punicifolia100 µg/mLMouse myoblastoma cells (C2C12)Leite et al., 2014 [12]

Increase of ERK1/2 activityHachimijiogan (HJG)HJG treatment (1–200 μg/mL)Murine skeletal cells Takeda et al., 2015 [13]

Activation of p38 MAPK signalingBroussonetia kazinoki (pp38)KP in 2% HS for 48 h, 10–1000 nMC2C12 and 10T1/2 cellsHwang et al., 2015 [14]
Corydalis turtschaninovii (p-p38)Various concentrations of THPC2C12 myoblasts and fibroblast 10T1/2Lee et al., 2014 [15]

Increase of myogeninEugenia punicifolia (17.5-kDa)2 mg/mLMale mdx dystrophic miceLeite et al., 2010 [8]

Increased expression of MHC, myogenin, and Troponin-TBroussonetia kazinokiKP in 2% HS for 48 h, 10–1000 nMC2C12 and 10T1/2 cellsHwang et al., 2015 [14]
Corydalis turtschaninoviiVarious concentrations of THPC2C12 myoblasts and fibroblast 10T1/2Lee et al., 2014 [15]

Decrease of the expression of TNF-αKorean Citrus aurantium L.10, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mLRat skeletal muscle cellsKim et al., 2012 [7]
Vitis vinifera100 μM Mouse C2C12 cells Wang et al., 2014 [16]
Panax notoginseng5 mg of Rg1Healthy young men ()Hou et al., 2015 [17]
Phlebodium decumanum5 capsules of 400 mg (250 mg of leaf extract and 150 mg of rhizome extract)Amateur athletes ()Díaz-Castro et al., 2012 [18]
Eugenia punicifolia2 mg/mLMale mdx dystrophic miceLeite et al., 2010 [8]
CoffeeThe same amount of drink in control and coffee group for 4 weeksC57BL/6 miceGuo et al., 2014 [19]
Camellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]
Glycine max100 µMC2C12 myotubesHirasaka et al., 2013 [11]

Increase in sTNF-RII Phlebodium decumanum5 capsules of 400 mg (250 mg of leaf extract and 150 mg of rhizome extract)Amateur athletes ()Díaz-Castro et al., 2012 [18]

Decrease of IL-1αCoffeeThe same amount of drink in control and coffee group for 4 weeksC57BL/6 miceGuo et al., 2014 [19]

Decrease of IL-6Korean Citrus aurantium L.10, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mLRat skeletal muscle cellsKim et al., 2012 [7]
Curcumin (at 24 h) 2.5 g twice dailyMen ()Nicol et al., 2015 [22]
CoffeeThe same amount of drink in control and coffee group for 4 weeksC57BL/6 miceGuo et al., 2014 [19]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]

Increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6)Curcumin (at 0 h and 48 h)2.5 g twice dailyMen ()Nicol et al., 2015 [22]

Decrease of IL-8Curcumin 1 g twice daily (corresponding to 200 mg curcumin twice a day)Healthy, moderately active male ()Drobnic et al., 2014 [23]

Decrease of IL-1βEugenia punicifolia (17.5-kDa)2 mg/mLMale mdx dystrophic miceLeite et al., 2010 [8]
Panax ginsengDS RatsYu et al., 2014 [10]
Camellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]

Increase of IL-10Panax notoginseng5 mg of Rg1Healthy young men ()Hou et al., 2015 [17]
Panax ginsengDS 20, 60, and 120 mg/kgRatsYu et al., 2014 [10]

Decrease of MCP-1Camellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]

Decreased MnSOD (only at high dose) Panax ginsengDS 20, 60, and 120 mg/kgRatsYu et al., 2014 [10]

Decrease of the expression of cleaved caspase-3Korean Citrus aurantium L.100 µgRat skeletal muscle cellsKim et al., 2013 [24]
Eugenia punicifolia2 mg/mLMale mdx dystrophic miceLeite et al., 2010 [8]

Increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as GPx (not at high dose) and GCSPanax ginsengDS 20, 60, and 120 mg/kgRatsYu et al., 2014 [10]
Phlebodium decumanum (only GPx)5 capsules of 400 mg (250 mg of leaf extract and 150 mg of rhizome extract)Amateur athletes ()Díaz-Castro et al., 2012 [18]

Increase of MMP-9 and MMP-2Eugenia punicifolia100 µg/mLMouse myoblastoma cells (C2C12)Leite et al., 2014 [12]

Reduced MMP-9Eugenia punicifolia2 mg/mLC57BL/10 miceLeite et al., 2014 [12]

Reduced MMP-9 and MMP-2 Eugenia punicifolia2 mg/mLMale mdx dystrophic miceLeite et al., 2010 [8]

Increase of citrate synthase (CS) activityPanax notoginseng5 mg of Rg1Healthy young men ()Hou et al., 2015 [17]

Attenuation of the increases in mRNAs encoding Ly6G and CD68 observed at 24 h after downhill runningCamellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]

Increase of p27 and pAktEugenia punicifolia100 µg/mLMouse myoblastoma cells (C2C12)Leite et al., 2014 [12]
Corydalis turtschaninovii (only pAkt)Various concentrations of THPC2C12 myoblasts and fibroblast 10T1/2Lee et al., 2014 [15]

Reduction of Cyclin D1 Eugenia punicifolia100 µg/mLMouse myoblastoma cells (C2C12)Leite et al., 2014 [12]

Increased expression of pAkt and pFoxO3aCamellia sinensis10–150 μMC2C12 myotubesMirza et al., 2014 [25]

Decrease in MPO activity Camellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]

Decreased caspase-3 expression Vitis vinifera0.4 mg per gram body mass per dayMice (male C57BL/6J mice)Ballak et al., 2015 [26]

Upregulation of phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6K, mTOR, and 4E-BP1Vitis vinifera100 μMMouse C2C12 cellsWang et al., 2014 [16]
CoffeeCoffee solution 10, 30, 50, and 100 µg/mLMouse myosatellite cellsGuo et al., 2014 [19]

Prevention of HSPB1 phosphorylationPinus pinaster0.05 mg/mLHuman muscle satellite cellsPoussard et al., 2013 [27]

Decrease in FoxO1 protein and promotion of FoxO1 phosphorylationVitis vinifera100 μM Mouse C2C12 cells Wang et al., 2014 [16]

Decreased MURF-1 and MAFbx Camellia sinensis10–150 μMC2C12 myotubesMirza et al., 2014 [25]

Increased MURF-1Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) (only PGC-1α)4% (w/w)Male SAMP8, SAMR1 miceKishida et al., 2015 [28]

Increase of the expression of MAFbx/atrogin1 Chestnuts flourPolyphenols (100 nM) or tocopherols (100 nM)C2C12 myotube cellsFrati et al., 2014 [29]

Decreased expression of proteasomes 20S and 19SCamellia sinensis10–150 μMC2C12 myotubesMirza et al., 2014 [25]

Decreased peak CK serum or activityCurcumin150 mg before and 12 h after each eccentric exerciseUntrained young men Tanabe et al., 2015 [30]
Curcumin2.5 g twice dailyMen ()Nicol et al., 2015 [22]
Curcumin200 mg/kg/dayMale Wistar ratsBoz et al., 2014 [31]

Decrease plasma-serum ammonia levelsPumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 daysMale ICR miceWang et al., 2012 [32]
Angelica sinensis0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1) and 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5), 6 weeksMale ICR strain miceYeh et al., 2014 [33]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]

Increase in blood creatine kinaseZingiber officinale Roscoe4 g of ginger once a day for 5 days20 non-weight trained participantsMatsumura et al., 2015 [34]
Eriobotrya japonica50 mg/kg/dayYoung (5-month-old) and aged (18-19-month-old) ratsSung et al., 2015 [35]

Increase in serum creatinineAshwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS)750 mg/day × 10 days; 1000 mg/day × 10 days; 1250 mg/day × 10 daysEighteen apparently healthy volunteersRaut et al., 2012 [36]

Decrease of serum creatine kinase activityPumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 daysMale ICR miceWang et al., 2012 [32]
Salvia officinalis 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg BW50 rats JiPing, 2011 [37]
Angelica sinensis0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1) and 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5), 6 weeksMale ICR strain miceYeh et al., 2014 [33]
Camellia sinensis0.25% or 0.5% green tea extract at the age of 42 days C57BL/6J and mdx miceEvans et al., 2010 [9]
Withania somnifera500 mg of the whole root extract twice daily; 750 mg twice daily35 individuals Mishra and Trikamji, 2013 [5]

Decrease in plasma lactate or lactic acidKorean mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. coloratum)KME at 400 or 1000 mg/(kg·d) for 1 week and 25, 40, 200, and 400 mg/kgICR miceJung et al., 2012 [38]
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 dBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 daysMale ICR miceWang et al., 2012 [32]
Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT)5, 10, and 20 mL/ kg body weight for 28 days32 male miceLi et al., 2013 [40]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]
Angelica sinensis0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1) and 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5), 6 weeksMale ICR strain miceYeh et al., 2014 [33]

Increase in LDH and lactic acidPanax ginseng10 mg/kgRatTan et al., 2013 [41]
Acanthopanax senticosus (LDH)500 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; 280 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg; 70 mg/kg or 280 mg/kgFive-week-old male ICR miceHuang et al., 2011 [42]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]

Decreased myoglobin levelsCurcumin200 mg/kg/dayMale Wistar ratsBoz et al., 2014 [31]

Decreased MDA levels in liver tissueCurcumin200 mg/kg/dayMale Wistar ratsBoz et al., 2014 [31]
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 daysBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]
Curcuma longa20–40 μg kg−1 of curcuminWistar rats ()Vitadello et al., 2014 [43]

Increased MDAPanax ginseng10 mg/kgRatTan et al., 2013 [41]

Increased availability of serum free fatty acidAegle marmelos (L.) Corr.400 mg/kg BW for 21 daysBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]

Decreased level of TGAcanthopanax senticosus500 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; 280 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg; 70 mg/kg or 280 mg/kgFive-week-old male ICR miceHuang et al., 2011 [42]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS)750 mg/day × 10 days; 1000 mg/day × 10 days; 1250 mg/day × 10 daysEighteen apparently healthy volunteersRaut et al., 2012 [36]

Decrease in glucose and insulin Panax notoginseng5 mg of Rg1Healthy young men ()Hou et al., 2015 [17]

Increase in blood glucosePumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 daysMale ICR miceWang et al., 2012 [32]
Angelica sinensis0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1) and 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5), 6 weeksMale ICR strain miceYeh et al., 2014 [33]

Increase in citrate synthase (CS) activityPanax notoginseng5 mg of Rg1Healthy young men ()Hou et al., 2015 [17]

Rate of glycogen accumulationPanax notoginseng5 mg of Rg1Healthy young men ()Hou et al., 2015 [17]

Increase in glycogen content of liver and muscleAegle marmelos (L.) Corr.100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 dBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 daysMale ICR miceWang et al., 2012 [32]
Panax ginseng10 mg/kgRatTan et al., 2013 [41]
Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT)5, 10, and 20 mL/kg body weight for 28 days32 male miceLi et al., 2013 [40]
Angelica sinensis0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1) and 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5), 6 weeksMale ICR strain miceYeh et al., 2014 [33]
Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]

Increase in cholinesterase (ChE)Salvia officinalis 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg BW50 rats JiPing, 2011 [37]

Upregulation of HSP70 mRNA levels or induction of the expression of Hsp-70Rhodiola rosea10 μg/mL of RhodiolifeMurine skeletal muscle cells Hernández-Santana et al., 2014 [44]
Cichorium intybus (Cii)5, 10, 25, and 50 µg/mLC2C12 myoblastLee et al., 2013 [45]

Downregulation of Hsp-70Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 daysBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]

Prevention of calpain upregulationPinus pinasterOligopin (0.05 mg/mL)Cultured human skeletal muscle satellite cellsDargelos et al., 2010 [46]

Inhibition of the level of ceramideCichorium intybus (Cii)5, 10, 25, and 50 µg/mLC2C12 myoblastLee et al., 2013 [45]

Suppression or mitigation of the increases in plasma CPK, AST, ALT, and MDA levels after downhill runningCamellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]
Chlorella (only CPK) 1% Chlorella-supplemented diet (CSD group)Transgenic miceNakashima et al., 2014 [47]

Reduction of the levels of carbonylated proteinCamellia sinensis0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMiceHaramizu et al., 2013 [20]
Curcuma longa20–40 μg kg−1 of curcuminWistar rats ()Vitadello et al., 2014 [43]
Camellia sinensisGTE (50 mg/kg body weight)Sixty male ratsAlway et al., 2015 [48]

Attenuation of hydrogen peroxide concentrationCurcuma longa3 mgMale C57BL/6 miceKawanishi et al., 2013 [49]

Attenuation of NADPH-oxidase mRNA expressionCurcuma longa3 mgMale C57BL/6 miceKawanishi et al., 2013 [49]

Attenuation of F4/80 mRNA expressionCurcuma longa3 mgMale C57BL/6 miceKawanishi et al., 2013 [49]

Counteraction of the increase of BiP, ATF4, XBP1u, and XBP1s mRNACamellia sinensisGreen tea extract (0.5% w/vol)Twelve-week-old female C57BL/6J miceRodriguez et al., 2014 [50]

Increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rateKorean mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. coloratum)6 µg/mLL6 cells and C2C12 cells, miceJung et al., 2012 [38]

Increase of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator- (PGC-) 1α and SIRT-1Korean mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. coloratum)6 µg/mLL6 cells and C2C12 cells, miceJung et al., 2012 [38]
Vitis vinifera0.05% trans-resveratrol for 10 monthsMiddle-aged (18 months) C57/BL6 miceJackson et al., 2011 [51]
Glycine max100 µMC2C12 myotubesHirasaka et al., 2013 [11]
Vitis vinifera125 mg/kg/dayThirty-six male ratsBennett et al., 2013 [52]

Decrease of PGC-1α expressionGo-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) (only PGC-1α)4% (w/w)Male SAMP8, SAMR1 miceKishida et al., 2015 [28]

Decrease of BUNAegle marmelos (L.) Corr.400 mg/kg BW for 21 daysBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 daysMale ICR miceWang et al., 2012 [32]
Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT)5, 10, and 20 mL/kg body weight for 28 days32 male miceLi et al., 2013 [40]
Acanthopanax senticosus500 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; 280 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg; 70 mg/kg or 280 mg/kgFive-week-old male ICR miceHuang et al., 2011 [42]
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS)750 mg/day × 10 days; 1000 mg/day × 10 days; 1250 mg/day × 10 daysEighteen apparently healthy volunteersRaut et al., 2012 [36]

Increase of SOD and catalaseAegle marmelos (L.) Corr.100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 dBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]
Panax ginseng (only SOD)10 mg/kgRatTan et al., 2013 [41]
Salvia officinalis (SOD and GSHPx)100, 200, and 300 mg/kg BW50 rats JiPing, 2011 [37]

Upregulation of GLUT-4 and AMPK-1αAegle marmelos (L.) Corr.100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 dBALB/c miceNallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]

Decrease in SUN levelsRubus parvifolius L. (RPL)40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kgFive-week-old maleChen et al., 2013 [21]

Increase of Grp94 proteinCurcuma longa20–40 μg kg−1 of curcuminWistar rats ()Vitadello et al., 2014 [43]

Decrease in myostatin and β-galactosidaseCamellia sinensis1 mg/kg b.i.d.Young and old C57BL/6 male miceGutierrez-Salmean et al., 2014 [53]

Increase in the ratio of plasma follistatin/myostatinCamellia sinensis25 mg of pure Epi (~1 mg/kg/day)Human subjects ()Gutierrez-Salmean et al., 2014 [53]

Decrease in cross-sectional area (CSA)Eriobotrya japonica50 mg/kg/dayYoung (5-month-old) and aged (18-19-month-old) ratsSung et al., 2015 [35]