Table 5: Botanicals with antifatigue activity on skeletal muscle.

PaperBotanicalCompoundModelPhysiologyMain results

In vitro

Jung et al., 2012 [38]Korean mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. coloratum)KME (Korean mistletoe extract)L6 cells and C2C12 cells, mice6 µg/mLAcceleration of OCR (37%). Significant increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression. 9.3-fold increase in SIRT1 expression.

Nallamuthu et al., 2014 [39]Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.PolyphenolsBALB/c mice100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW for 21 dIncrease in the duration of swimming time to exhaustion by 23.4 and 47.5% for medium and higher doses, respectively.

Animals

Wang et al., 2012 [32]Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruitC. moschata fruit extract (CME)Male ICR mice0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day for 14 days Dose-dependent increase in swimming time ().

Tan et al., 2013 [41]Panax ginsengGinsenoside Rb1 (GRb1)Rat10 mg/kg Significant decrease of maximum grip strength of the MG group and the GG group ().

Li et al., 2013 [40]Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT)32 male mice5, 10, and 20 mL/kg body weight for 28 daysSignificant increase of exhaustive swimming times ().

JiPing, 2011 [37]Salvia officinalis50 rats100, 200, and 300 mg/kg BW Reduction of lipid peroxidation, LDH, and CK.

Yeh et al., 2014 [33]Angelica sinensisFerulic acid Male ICR strain mice0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1) and 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5), 6 weeksSlight increase of grip strength (), at the higher AS doses, longer exercise performance (1.49, ).

Huang et al., 2011 [42]Acanthopanax senticosusEleutheroside E, eleutheroside E2Five-week-old male ICR mice500 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; 280 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg; 70 mg/kg or 280 mg/kg Increase of swimming time to exhaustion at high dose ().

Chen et al., 2013 [21]Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL)Three saponins (nigaichigoside, suavissimoside, and coreanoside)Five-week-old male 40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg Delays of SUN and LA accumulation, decrease in TG level, and increase in HG and LDH. Suppression of inflammatory cytokine production.

Jung et al., 2012 [38]Korean mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. coloratum)ICR miceKME at 400 or 1000 mg/(kg·d) for 1 week
and 25, 40, 200, and 400 mg/kg
Induction of mitochondrial activity and improvement in endurance.

Jackson et al., 2011 [51]Vitis viniferaResveratrol Middle-aged (18 months old) C57/BL6 mice0.05% trans-resveratrol for 10 monthsProtection against oxidative stress through the upregulation of MnSOD. Increase in the muscles activity in animals that were 28 months of age by an additional ~40% ().

Humans

Raut et al., 2012 [36]Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS)Eighteen apparently healthy volunteers 750 mg/day × 10 days; 1000 mg/day × 10 days; 1250 mg/day × 10 daysIncrease in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Significant decrease in total cholesterol.