Table 7: Botanicals with effects on muscle regeneration.

PaperBotanicalCompoundModelPhysiologyResults

In vitro

Hwang et al., 2015 [14]Broussonetia kazinokiKazinol-P (KP)C2C12 and 10T1/2 cellsKP in 2% HS for 48 h, 10–1000 nMIncrease of expression of MHC, myogenin, and Troponin-T. Increase in the level of an actively phosphorylated form of p38 MAPK (pp38) in a dose-dependent manner.

Lee et al., 2014 [15]Corydalis turtschaninoviiTetrahydropalmatine (THP)C2C12 myoblasts and fibroblast 10T1/2Various concentrations of THPEnhancement of the expression of muscle-specific proteins, including MHC, MyoD, and myogenin. Increase in the levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK.

Takeda et al., 2015 [13]Hachimijiogan (HJG)Murine skeletal cells HJG treatment (1–200 μg/mL) 1.23-fold increase in the cell number.

Poussard et al., 2013 [27]Pinus pinasterNatural antioxidant: short oligomers of catechin and epicatechin Human muscle satellite cells 0.05 mg/mLBlock of the apoptosis and the protein oxidation. Recovery of HSPB1.

Animals

Allouh, 2011 [58]Ferula hermonisFerutinin, teferdin, teferin, and epoxy-benzAdult male rats60 mg/kg/rat Significant increase in muscle weight, fiber size, and nuclear number.

Bennett et al., 2013 [52]Vitis viniferaResveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) Thirty-six male rats 125 mg/kg/dayFavorable changes to type IIA and type IIB muscle fiber CSA and reduction of apoptotic signaling in muscles of old animal.

Alway et al., 2015 [48]Camellia sinensisEpicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin-3-gallateSixty male ratsGTE (50 mg/kg body weight) Counterbalance of the loss of hind limb plantaris muscle mass () and tetanic force () during HLS. Improvement of muscle fiber cross-sectional area in both plantaris () and soleus after HLS.

Evans et al., 2010 [9]Camellia sinensisGallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallateC57BL/6J and mdx mice0.25% or 0.5% green tea extractIncrease in the area of normal fiber morphology (). Decrease in the area of regenerating fibers ().

Ballak et al., 2015 [26]Vitis viniferaResveratrol Mice (male C57BL/6J mice)0.4 mg per gram body mass per dayNo modification of the age-related decrease in muscle force, specific tension, or mass.

Gutierrez-Salmean et al., 2014 [53]Camellia sinensisEpicatechinYoung and old C57BL/6 male mice1 mg/kg b.i.d.Significant decrease of myostatin levels in young and old mice (15% and 21%, resp.). Significant decrease of SA-β-Gal in old SkM (22%).

Vazeille et al., 2012 [59]Curcuma longaCurcumin Male Wistar rats1 mg/kg body weight Improvement of recovery during reloading.

Sung et al., 2015 [35]Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf extractYoung (5-month-old) and aged (18-19-month-old) rats50 mg/kg/dayEnhancement in MyoD, myogenin, and MyHC expression. Activation of mTOR signaling pathway, which is involved in muscle protein synthesis during myogenesis.

Humans

Terauchi et al., 2014 [60]Grape seedsProanthocyanidin of grape seeds91 women 100 or 200 mg/d proanthocyanidinChanges in lean mass and muscle mass from baseline to 8 weeks significantly higher in treated groups.

Gutierrez-Salmean et al., 2014 [53]Camellia sinensisEpicatechinHuman subjects ()25 mg of pure Epi (~1 mg/kg/day)Increase in bilateral hand strength of ~7%. Significant increase (49.2 ± 16.6%) in the ratio of plasma follistatin/myostatin levels.

Kim et al., 2013 [24]Camellia sinensisCatechins 128 women 540 mg of catechins daily Significant group × time interactions in TUG (), usual walking speed (), and maximum walking speed ().

Mishra and Trikamji, 2013 [5]Withania somniferaAlkaloids and steroidal lactones 35 individuals 500 mg of the whole root extract twice daily; 750 mg twice dailyImprovement of the strength and functioning of the muscle.