Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Effects of Yoga on Pain, Mobility, and Quality of Life in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

Table 1

Characteristics of included studies in this review.
(a)

StudyStudy designNumber of ParticipantsAnalyzed number of participantsDuration of KOA (yrs)Age of the participants
(mean ± SD)
Gender (F/M)

Ebnezar et al., 2012 [16]RCT = 125/125 = 118/117<1 yr/1-2 yrs/>2 yrs = 121/79/50 = 59.56 ± 9.54/59.42 ± 10.66174/76

Ebnezar et al., 2012 [17]RCT = 125/125 = 118/117<1 yr/1-2 yrs/>2 yrs = 121/79/50 = 59.56 ± 8.18/59.42 ± 10.66174/76

Ebnezar and Yogitha, 2012 [18]RCT = 125/125 = 118/117Unclear = 59.6 ± 8.2/59.4 ± 10.7Unclear

Cheung et al., 2014 [19]RCT = 18/18 = 18/18At least 6 months = 71.9 ± 2.7/71.9 ± 3.1All females

Kolasinski et al., 2005 [20]Single group pre-post study = 11 = 7At least 6 months = 58.6 ± 8.6All females

Brenneman et al., 2015 [21]Single group pre-post study = 45 = 39Unclear = 60.3 ± 6.5All females

Ebnezar et al., 2012 [22]RCT = 125/125 = 118/117<1 yr/1-2 yrs/>2 yrs = 121/79/50 = 59.6 ± 8.2/59.4 ± 10.7174/76

Nambi and Shah, 2013 [23]RCT = 15/15 = 15/15At least 6 months = 52 ± 5/54 ± 413/17

Ghasemi et al., 2013 [24]Quasi-RCT = 15/15 = 11/14Unclear = 51 ± 8.9/53.11 ± 10.9All females

(b)

StudyComparison InterventionIntervention of control groupIntervention of yoga groupYoga therapy practiceMain outcomesTime point

Ebnezar et al., 2012 [16]Yoga + PT versus PTPT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Practices (40 minutes/day)
Home practice (12 weeks)
Compliance (once/3 days)
Weekly review (once/week/12 weeks)
PT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/10 weeks)
Yogic sukshma vyayamas
Relaxation techniques
Asanas (physical postures)
Pranayama
Meditation
Lectures and counseling
Walking pain
Walking time (50 m)
WOMAC
Sign: active range of movements
Sign: tenderness
Sign: swelling
Sign: crepitus
14 weeks

Ebnezar et al., 2012 [17]Yoga + PT versus PTPT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Practices (40 minutes/day; 6 days/week)
Home practice (12 weeks)
Compliance (once/3 days)
Weekly review (once/week/12 weeks)
PT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/10 weeks)
Yogic sukshma vyayamas
Relaxation techniques
Asanas (physical postures)
Pranayama
Meditation
Lectures and counseling
QOL (SF-36)14 weeks

Ebnezar and Yogitha, 2012 [18]Yoga + PT versus PTPT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Practices (40 minutes/day)
Home practice (12 weeks)
Compliance (once/3 days)
Weekly review (once/week/12 weeks)
PT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/10 weeks)
Yogic sukshma vyayamas
Relaxation techniques
Asanas (physical postures)
Pranayama
Meditation
Lectures and counseling
Walking pain
WOMAC
Sign: tenderness
Sign: early morning stiffness
14 weeks

Cheung et al., 2014 [19]Yoga versus Usual care (8 weeks)
Preyoga intervention versus postyoga intervention (8 weeks–20 weeks)
Another program (8 weeks)
Hatha yoga intervention (8–20 weeks)
Hatha yoga (60 minutes/week/8 weeks)
Home practice yoga (30 minutes/time; 4 times/week)
Asanas
Pranas
Meditation
WOMAC
SPPB
PSQI
QOL (SF-12 & Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder)
20 weeks

Kolasinski et al., 2005 [20] Yoga versus control (no specific exercise)Modified Iyengar yoga (90-minute classes/week/8 weeks)AsanasWOMAC
AIMS2
GA
Psychological subsets
Physician Global Assessment
50-foot walk time
8 weeks

Brenneman et al., 2015 [21]Yoga versus control (no specific exercise)Yoga (60 minutes/sessions/3 sessions/week/12 weeks)UnclearVAS
KOOS
Fitness and peak KAM
Strength
Mobility performance
12 weeks

Ebnezar et al., 2012 [22]Yoga + PT versus PTPT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Practices (40 minutes/day)
Home practice (12 weeks)
Compliance (once/3 days)
Weekly review (once/week/12 weeks)
PT (20 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/2 weeks)
Integrated yoga therapy (40 minutes/day/10 weeks)
Yogic sukshma vyayamas
Relaxation techniques
Asanas (physical postures)
Pranayama
Meditation
Lectures and Counseling
Anxiety scores
Resting pain
Sign: early morning stiffness
14 weeks

Nambi and Shah, 2013 [23]Yoga + EMG biofeedback + Knee strengthening exercise + TENS versus EMG biofeedback + Knee strengthening exercise + TENSEMG biofeedback (3 times/week/8 weeks)
Knee strengthening exercise (3 times/week/8 weeks)
TENS (20 minutes/time/3 times/week)
Iyengar yoga (90 minutes/session, 3 times/week/8 weeks)
EMG biofeedback (3 times/week/8 weeks)
Knee strengthening exercise (3 times/week/8 weeks)
TENS (20 minutes/time/3 times/week)
Asanas VAS
WOMAC
8 weeks

Ghasemi et al., 2013 [24]Yoga versus ordinary daily activitiesOrdinary daily activitiesHatha yoga (60 minutes/session, 3 times/week/8 weeks)Asana (movement)
Pranayama (breathing)
Meditation (relaxation)
VAS
KOOS
8 weeks

WOMAC: Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (lower scores = better state); SPPB: Short Physical Performance Battery (higher scores = better state); QOS: quality of sleep; QOL: quality of life; PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (lower scores = better state); SF-12: Health Related Short Form 12 (higher scores = better state); PCS: physical component summary; MCS: mental component summary; Cantril current and 5 years (higher scores = better state); AIMS2: Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2; GA: Global Assessment; ADL: Activities of Daily Life; VAS: Visual Analog Scale; KOOS: Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale; KAM: knee adduction moment; PT: physiotherapy; EMG: electromyography.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.