Table 1: The basic characteristics of included studies.

StudyCountryStudy
design
Sample
size
AgeDisease
duration
EC approval

Chen and Wu 2004 [28]ChinaRCTT: 34
C: 33
T: 28–65
C: 28–65
T: 5 days–10 years
C: 5 days–10 years
Not reported

Mao et al. 2014 [29]ChinaRCTT: 30
C: 30
T: 25–49
C: 26–49
Not reportedNot reported

Zhang 2013 [30]ChinaRCTT: 50
C: 50
T: 25–63
C: 26–63
T: 3 days–2 years
C: 3 days–2 years
Not reported

Xie and Wang 2014 [31]ChinaRCTT: 40
C: 40
T: 25–57
C: 26–63
T: 3 days–10 months
C: 2 days–11 months
Not reported

Gao and Ni 2002 [32]ChinaRCTT: 58
C: 74
T: 16–76
C: 16–78
T: 3 days–7 years
C: 2 days–7 years
Not reported

Zhu 2003 [33]ChinaRCTT: 40
C: 40
T: 18–76
C: 18–77
T: 2 days–9 years
C: 3 days–9 years
Not reported

Huang et al. 2010 [35]ChinaRCTT: 30
C: 30
T: 20–63
C: 20–63
T: 3 months–3 years
C: 3 months–3 years
Not reported

Wang et al. 2011 [36]ChinaRCTT: 40
C: 40
T: 20–60
C: 20–60
Not reportedNot reported

Zhang 2013 [37]ChinaRCTT: 100
C: 100
T: 45–76
C: 40–71
T: 3 days–11 years
C: 3 days–11 years
Not reported

Mo 2010 [38]ChinaRCTT: 100
C: 100
T: 20–64
C: 20–64
Not reportedNot reported

Wu 2011 [39]ChinaRCTT: 30
C: 30
T: 28–65
C: 28–65
T: 2 years–20 years
C: 2 days–20 years
Not reported

Sun et al. 2014 [40]ChinaRCTT: 16
C: 10
T: 20–70
C: 20–70
Not reportedNot reported

Note. RCT: randomized controlled trial; T: treatment group; C: control group; EC: ethical committee.