Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8273716, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8273716
Research Article

Predicting Outcome in Comatose Patients: The Role of EEG Reactivity to Quantifiable Electrical Stimuli

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China

Received 14 December 2015; Revised 14 February 2016; Accepted 17 March 2016

Academic Editor: Giovanni Mirabella

Copyright © 2016 Gang Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Sivaraju, E. J. Gilmore, C. R. Wira et al., “Prognostication of post-cardiac arrest coma: early clinical and electroencephalographic predictors of outcome,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1264–1272, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. O. Rossetti, E. Carrera, and M. Oddo, “Early EEG correlates of neuronal injury after brain anoxia,” Neurology, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 796–802, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. O. Rossetti, L. A. Urbano, F. Delodder, P. W. Kaplan, and M. Oddo, “Prognostic value of continuous EEG monitoring during therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 5, article 173, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Z. Crepeau, A. A. Rabinstein, J. E. Fugate et al., “Continuous EEG in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: prognostic and clinical value,” Neurology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 339–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Gütling, A. Gonser, H.-G. Imhof, and T. Landis, “EEG reactivity in the prognosis of severe head injury,” Neurology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 915–918, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. A. L. Thenayan, M. Savard, M. D. Sharpe, L. Norton, and B. Young, “Electroencephalogram for prognosis after cardiac arrest,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 300–304, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. Logi, P. Pasqualetti, and F. Tomaiuolo, “Predict recovery of consciousness in post-acute severe brain injury: the role of EEG reactivity,” Brain Injury, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 972–979, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Pfurtscheller and F. H. Lopes Da Silva, “Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 110, no. 11, pp. 1842–1857, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. van der Wal, S. Brinkman, L. L. A. Bisschops et al., “Influence of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest on hospital mortality,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. B. Young, “Coma,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1157, no. 1, pp. 32–47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. G. B. Young, “The EEG in coma,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 473–485, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. B. Young, J. H. Kreeft, R. S. McLachlan, and J. Demelo, “EEG and clinical associations with mortality in comatose patients in a general intensive care unit,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 354–360, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Li, X.-G. Kang, S. Qi et al., “Brain response to thermal stimulation predicts outcome of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 1539–1547, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Dragancea, M. Rundgren, E. Englund, H. Friberg, and T. Cronberg, “The influence of induced hypothermia and delayed prognostication on the mode of death after cardiac arrest,” Resuscitation, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 337–342, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Tracey, L. Becerra, I. Chang et al., “Noxious hot and cold stimulation produce common patterns of brain activation in humans: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 288, no. 2, pp. 159–162, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Claassen, L. J. Hirsch, J. A. Frontera et al., “Prognostic significance of continuous EEG monitoring in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 103–112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Fishgold and P. Mathis, “Obnubilations comas et stupeurs: etudes electroencephalographiques,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 11, pp. 27–68, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. Zhao, Y. Y. Su, Y. Zhang et al., “Decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarct: a randomized controlled trial enrolling patients up to 80 years old,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 161–171, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. H. Skerritt and G. A. R. Johnston, “Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 89, no. 3-4, pp. 193–198, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Howell, E. Grill, A.-M. Klein, A. Straube, and A. Bender, “Rehabilitation outcome of anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy survivors with prolonged disorders of consciousness,” Resuscitation, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 1409–1415, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Vahedi, E. Vicaut, J. Mateo et al., “Sequential-design, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of early decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (DECIMAL Trial),” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2506–2517, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. M. Hastings and C. E. Wagner, “Hypothermia after cardiac arrest,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 42, no. 12, article e799, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. C. Cloostermans, F. B. van Meulen, C. J. Eertman, H. W. Hom, and M. J. A. M. Van Putten, “Continuous electroencephalography monitoring for early prediction of neurological outcome in postanoxic patients after cardiac arrest: a prospective cohort study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 2867–2875, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. C. Hermans, M. B. Westover, M. J. A. M. van Putten, L. J. Hirsch, and N. Gaspard, “Quantification of EEG reactivity in comatose patients,” Clinical Neurophysiology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M.-T. Tseng, W.-Y. I. Tseng, C.-C. Chao, H.-E. Lin, and S.-T. Hsieh, “Distinct and shared cerebral activations in processing innocuous versus noxious contact heat revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 743–757, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Tsuda, K. Hayashi, S. Hagihira, and T. Sawa, “Ketamine, an NMDA-antagonist, increases the oscillatory frequencies of α-peaks on the electroencephalographic power spectrum,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 472–481, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. W. Kaplan, “Electrophysiological prognostication and brain injury from cardiac arrest,” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 403–412, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Q. Noirhomme, R. Lehembre, Z. D. R. Lugo et al., “Automated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest,” Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. RamachandranNair, R. Sharma, S. K. Weiss, and M. A. Cortez, “Reactive EEG patterns in pediatric coma,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 345–349, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. A. Carandang and D. W. Krieger, “Decompressive hemicraniectomy and durotomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 286–289, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. A. Leeman, “SSEPs: from limb to cortex,” American Journal of Electroneurodiagnostic Technology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 165–177, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. R. Vincent, “The ascending reticular activating system—from aminergic neurons to nitric oxide,” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 18, no. 1-2, pp. 23–30, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. V. Alvarez, M. Oddo, and A. O. Rossetti, “Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs) in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: characteristics and prognostic value,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 204–208, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. I. Dzhala and K. J. Staley, “Excitatory actions of endogenously released GABA contribute to initiation of ictal epileptiform activity in the developing hippocampus,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1840–1846, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. M. Synek, “Revised EEG coma scale in diffuse acute head injuries in adults,” Clinical and Experimental Neurology, vol. 27, pp. 99–111, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Klimesch, “EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 29, no. 2-3, pp. 169–195, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus