Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Spinal Cord Injury: A Promising Supplementary Treatment in Future

Table 2

Sources, major components, dosage form, and mechanisms of five Chinese herbs in SCI treatment.

NamePictureSourceMajor componentsDosage formMechanism

Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)Dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in genus Salvia of mint familyHydrophilic depsides derivatives (danshensu, salvianolic acids A–C, E–G, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, etc.) and lipophilic diterpenoids (tanshinones Ι, , and , tanshinol A, tanshindiols A, B, etc.)() Herb extract
() Chinese medicine injection
() Hemorheology change (blood flow, platelet aggregation, TXA2, ηb, Fib, and RAI)
() Antioxidant (MDA, SOD, and NO)
() Anti-inflammatory (NF-κB)
() Neuroprotective effect (GDNF, ChAT, synapsin Ι, syt Ι, and MBP)
() Antiapoptosis (apoptotic cell index, iNOS expression)

Ginkgo (Ginkgo Folium)Leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. in GinkgoaceaeTerpenoids trilactones (ginkgolides A, B, C, and J and bilobalide), flavonoid glycosides (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin), polyphenols, allyl phenols, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids and lipids, inorganic salts, and amino acids() Extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb)
() Active constituents: ginkgolides A and B
EGb:
() Antioxidant (SOD, MDA, and NO)
() Antiapoptosis (iNOS, ratio of apoptotic cells, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax)
Ginkgolides A and B:
() Antiapoptosis (Bcl-2/Bax ratio, caspase-3, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway)
() Neuroprotective effect (ED-1 positive cells, S100β-positive cells, GFAP-positive cells, and MBP-positive cells)

Ginseng (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma)Dried root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. in genus Panax of Araliaceae familyGinsenosides (Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Re, Rd, etc.)() Herb extract
() Chinese medicine injection
() Antioxidant (SOD, GSH, MDA, Ca2+ influx, and NSE)
() Antiapoptosis (apoptotic cells numbers, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3)

Notoginseng (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma)Dried root and rhizome of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen in AraliaceaeGinsenosides (ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Rg1, and Re), notoginsenosides (notoginsenoside R1), flavonoids, volatile oils, amino acids, and polysaccharideHerb extract: Panax notoginseng Saponins (PNS)() Anti-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10)
() Neuroprotective effect (AQP4, GFAP)
() Antiapoptosis (Fas, FasL)

Astragali RadixDried root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao or Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.Polysaccharides (APS), triterpene saponins (astragalosides I–IV, AST I–IV), flavonoids, amino acids, alkaloids, and trace elementsAstragali Radix injection() Antioxidant (SOD, MDA)
() Neuroprotective effect (GFAP)

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