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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9521349, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9521349
Research Article

Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

1Faculdade de Farmácia, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
2Núcleo de Enteroparasitas, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 01246-902 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Núcleo de Pesquisa em Doenças Negligenciadas, Universidade Guarulhos, 07025-000 Guarulhos, SP, Brazil

Received 4 August 2016; Revised 30 September 2016; Accepted 16 October 2016

Academic Editor: Andrea Maxia

Copyright © 2016 Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA) and T. parthenium (TP) and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM) caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.