Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 1926806, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1926806
Research Article

Antipruritic Effect of Acupuncture in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: Feasibility Study Protocol for a Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial

1Department of Korean Medical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
2Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Centre, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
3Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Dermatology of Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
4Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia

Correspondence should be addressed to Kyuseok Kim; rk.ca.uhk@mikskdmk and Hyangsook Lee; rk.ca.uhk@336cre

Received 13 May 2017; Accepted 27 September 2017; Published 14 November 2017

Academic Editor: Salvatore Chirumbolo

Copyright © 2017 Yu-Kang Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Saeki, T. Nakahara, A. Tanaka et al., “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2016,” The Journal of Dermatology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1117–1145, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. J. M. Bae, Y. Y. Choi, C. O. Park, K. Y. Chung, and K. H. Lee, “Efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 110–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. H. Williams, C. Robertson, A. Stewart et al., “Worldwide variations in the prevalence of symptoms of atopic eczema in the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 103, no. 1 part 1, pp. 125–138, 1999, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9893196. View at Google Scholar
  4. H. C. Williams, “Is the prevalence of atopic dermatitis increasing?” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 385–391, 1992, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1486704. View at Google Scholar
  5. H. M. Cheng, S. Kim, G. H. Park et al., “Low vitamin D levels are associated with atopic dermatitis, but not allergic rhinitis, asthma, or IgE sensitization, in the adult Korean population,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 133, pp. 1048–1055, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. H. Lee, K. D. Han, K. M. Kim, Y. G. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. M. Park, “Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in korean children based on data from the 2008-2011 korean national health and nutrition examination survey,” Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Smaldone, J. C. Honig, and M. W. Byrne, “Sleepless in America: inadequate sleep and relationships to health and well-being of our nation's children,” Pediatrics, vol. 119, supplement 1, pp. S29–S37, 2007, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17272582. View at Google Scholar
  8. “Management of atopic eczema in primary care. In. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network,” 2011.
  9. J. E. Kim, H. J. Kim, B. L. Lew et al., “Consensus guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in korea (part II): systemic treatment,” Annals of Dermatology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 578–592, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. J. E. Kim, H. J. Kim, B. L. Lew et al., “Consensus guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in Korea (part I): general management and topical treatment,” Annals of Dermatology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 563–577, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. S. L. Stein and A. S. Cifu, “Management of atopic dermatitis,” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 315, pp. 1510-1511, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. Y. Yun, S. Lee, S. Kim, and I. Choi, “Inpatient treatment for severe atopic dermatitis in a traditional korean medicine hospital: introduction and retrospective chart review,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 200–206, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. A. Lee, J. Choi, T.-Y. Choi et al., “Clinical practice guidelines of Korean medicine on acupuncture and herbal medicine for atopic dermatitis: a GRADE approach,” European Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 854–860, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Pfab, G. I. Athanasiadis, J. Huss-Marp et al., “Effect of acupuncture on allergen-induced basophil activation in patients with atopic eczema: a pilot trial,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 309–314, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. H. Y. Tan, G. B. Lenon, A. L. Zhang, and C. C. Xue, “Efficacy of acupuncture in the management of atopic dermatitis: a systematic review,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 711–715, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. G. Lin, Y. C. Lee, C. H. Tseng et al., “Electroacupuncture inhibits pruritogen-induced spinal microglial activation in mice,” Brain Research, vol. 1649, no. part A, pp. 23–29, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. F. Pfab, J. Huss-Marp, A. Gatti et al., “Influence of acupuncture on type I hypersensitivity itch and the wheal and flare response in adults with atopic eczema—a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial,” Allergy, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 903–910, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. F. Pfab, M. T. Kirchner, J. Huss-Marp et al., “Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I hypersensitivity itch and skin response in adults with atopic dermatitis: a patient- and examiner-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial,” Allergy, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 566–573, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. C. Yu, P. Zhang, Z. T. Lv et al., “Efficacy of acupuncture in itch: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical randomized controlled trials,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 208690, 5 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. J. Hanifin and G. Rajka, “Diagnostic features of atopic eczema,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica (Stockh), vol. 92, pp. 44–47, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Park, A. White, C. Stevinson, E. Ernst, and M. James, “Validating a new non-penetrating sham acupuncture device: two randomised controlled trials,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 168–174, 2002, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12512790. View at Google Scholar
  22. H. MacPherson, D. G. Altman, R. Hammerschlag et al., “Revised standards for reporting interventions in clinical trials of acupuncture (STRICTA): extending the CONSORT statement,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. ST1–ST14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. C. Lee, A. Keyes, J. R. Hensley, M. J. Kwasny, D. P. West, and P. A. Lio, “Effectiveness of acupressure on pruritus and lichenification associated with atopic dermatitis: a pilot trial,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 8–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. F. Qu, D. Zhang, L. T. Chen et al., “Auricular acupressure reduces anxiety levels and improves outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized and controlled study,” Scientific Reports, vol. 4, p. 5028, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. M. Wang, C. Peloquin, and Z. N. Kain, “The use of auricular acupuncture to reduce preoperative anxiety,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1178–1180, 2001, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11682391. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. F. Stalder, A. Taïeb, D. J. Atherton et al., “Severity scoring of atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index: consensus report of the european task force on atopic dermatitis,” Dermatology, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 23–31, 1993, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8435513. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Cheon, S. Park, J. S. Park et al., “KM110329 in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial—study protocol,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, p. 335, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Ricci, A. Dondi, and A. Patrizi, “Useful tools for the management of atopic dermatitis,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 287–300, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Takeuchi, H. Saeki, S. Tokunaga et al., “A randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of topical tacrolimus for the treatment of pruritis in patients with atopic dermatitis,” Annals of Dermatology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 144–150, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. Y. A. Leshem, T. Hajar, J. M. Hanifin, and E. L. Simpson, “What the Eczema Area and Severity Index score tells us about the severity of atopic dermatitis: an interpretability study,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 172, no. 5, pp. 1353–1357, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. C. R. Charman, A. J. Venn, J. C. Ravenscroft, and H. C. Williams, “Translating patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM) scores into clinical practice by suggesting severity strata derived using anchor-based methods,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 169, no. 6, pp. 1326–1332, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. L. Lundberg, M. Johannesson, M. Silverdahl, C. Hermansson, and M. Lindberg, “Health-related quality of life in patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis measured with SF-36, DLQI and a subjective measure of disease activity,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 430–434, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. J. Meggitt, J. C. Gray, and N. J. Reynolds, “Azathioprine dosed by thiopurine methyltransferase activity for moderate-to-severe atopic eczema: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet, vol. 367, no. 9513, pp. 839–846, 2006, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16530578. View at Google Scholar
  34. Y.-H. Yun and I.-H. Choi, “A study on the development of traditional korean medicine clinical practice guideline for atopic dermatitis,” The Journal of Korean Oriental Medical Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology & Dermatology, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 38, 2012, http://sfx-82cmc.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/cmclib?sid=naver&atitle=%EC%95%84%ED%86%A0%ED%94%BC%ED%94%BC%EB%B6%80%EC%97%BC%EC%9D%98%20%ED%95%9C%EC%9D%98%ED%95%99%20%EC%A7%84%EB%A3%8C%20%EC%A7%80%EC%B9%A8%20%EA%B0%9C%EB%B0%9C%EC%9D%84%20%EC%9C%84%ED%95%9C%20%EC%82%AC%EC%A0%84%20%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC&title=%ED%95%9C%EB%B0%A9%EC%95%88%EC%9D%B4%EB%B9%84%EC%9D%B8%ED%9B%84%ED%94%BC%EB%B6%80%EA%B3%BC%ED%95%99%ED%9A%8C%EC%A7%80&volume=25&issue=2&date=2012&spage=38&issn=1738-6640. View at Google Scholar
  35. N.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Park, H-S. Oh, and Y.-B. Park, “Correlation analysis for correlation dimesion of EEG and cold-heat score,” Journal of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medical Diagnostics, vol. 11, pp. 116–127, 2007, http://scholar.dkyobobook.co.kr/searchDetail.laf?barcode=4010023260558. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Yeo, K. Park, K. Bae, E. Jang, and Y. Lee, “Development on the questionnaire of cold-heat pattern identification based on usual symptoms for health promotion—focused on reliability study,” Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 116–123, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. K.-H. Joh, K. Toshiaki, T. Katsutoshi et al., “An introduction of abdominal palpation signs in japanese oriental medicine—a new approach to the practice of abdominal palpation in korean oriental medicine,” Journal of Korean Oriental Internal Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 86, 1997, http://sfx-82cmc.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/cmclib?sid=naver&atitle=%ED%95%9C%EB%B0%A9%28%E6%BC%A2%E6%96%B9%29%EC%9D%98%20%EB%B3%B5%EC%A7%84%EB%B2%95%28%E8%85%B9%E8%A8%BA%E6%B3%95%29%EC%97%90%20%EA%B4%80%28%E9%97%9C%29%ED%95%98%EC%97%AC%20-%ED%95%9C%EC%9D%98%ED%95%99%28%E9%9F%93%E9%86%AB%E5%AD%B8%29%EC%97%90%EC%84%9C%EC%9D%98%20%EB%B3%B5%EC%A7%84%EB%B2%95%28%E8%85%B9%E8%A8%BA%E6%B3%95%29%20%EB%8F%84%EC%9E%85%28%E5%B0%8E%E5%85%A5%29%EC%97%90%20%EB%8C%80%ED%95%9C%20%EC%A0%91%EA%B7%BC%EC%8B%9C%EB%8F%84%28%E6%8E%A5%E8%BF%91%E8%A9%A6%E5%9C%96%29-&title=%EB%8C%80%ED%95%9C%ED%95%9C%EB%B0%A9%EB%82%B4%EA%B3%BC%ED%95%99%ED%9A%8C%EC%A7%80&volume=18&issue=1&date=1997&spage=86&issn=1226-9174. View at Google Scholar
  38. S. J. Ko, H. Lee, S. K. Kim et al., “Development of the quantitative indicator of abdominal examination for clinical application: a pilot study,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 358–363, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. E. L. Nussbaum and L. Downes, “Reliability of clinical pressure-pain algometric measurements obtained on consecutive days,” Physical Therapy, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 160–169, 1998, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9474108. View at Google Scholar
  40. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. Y. Oh, L. Chekal, and D. C. Lee, “The association between atopic dermatitis and depressive symptoms in korean adults: the fifth korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007-2012,” Korean Journal of Family Medicine, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 261–265, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. H. Takaki and Y. Ishii, “Sense of coherence, depression, and anger among adults with atopic dermatitis,” Psychology, Health and Medicine, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 725–734, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. K. K. Chon, S. C. Choi, and B. C. Yang, “Integrated Adaptation of CES—D in Korea,” The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–76, 2001, http://www.dbpia.co.kr/Article/NODE06368475. View at Google Scholar
  43. G. Vilagut, C. G. Forero, G. Barbaglia, and J. Alonso, “Screening for depression in the general population with the center for epidemiologic studies depression (CES-D): a systematic review with meta-analysis,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 5, p. e0155431, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. M. A. Gupta and A. K. Gupta, “Psychiatric and psychological co-morbidity in patients with dermatologic disorders: epidemiology and management,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 833–842, 2003, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=14640776. View at Google Scholar
  45. E. Aydin, G. Atis, A. Bolu et al., “Identification of anger and self-esteem in psoriasis patients in a consultation-liaison psychiatry setting: a case control study,” Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1–6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. D. W. Hahn, K. K. Chon, C. H. Lee, and D. S. Charles, “Korean adaptation of the state-trait anger expression inventory: anger and blood pressure,” The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 60–78, 1997, http://www.dbpia.co.kr/Article/NODE06368419. View at Google Scholar
  47. K. Linde, A. Streng, and S. Jürgens, “Acupuncture for patients with migraine: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 17, pp. 2118–2125, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Vincent, “Credibility assessment in trials of acupuncture,” Complementary Medicine Research, vol. 4, pp. 8–11, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  49. F. T. Liu, H. Goodarzi, and H. Y. Chen, “IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in atopic dermatitis,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 298–310, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. I. Mittermann, G. Wikberg, C. Johansson et al., “IgE sensitization profiles differ between adult patients with severe and moderate atopic dermatitis,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 5, p. e0156077, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. S. Noda, M. Suarez-Farinas, B. Ungar et al., “The Asian atopic dermatitis phenotype combines features of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis with increased TH17 polarization,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 1254–1264, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. M. D. Howell, B. E. Kim, P. Gao et al., “Cytokine modulation of atopic dermatitis filaggrin skin expression,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 124, supplement 2, no. 3, pp. R7–R12, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Suarez-Farinas, N. Dhingra, J. Gittler et al., “Intrinsic atopic dermatitis shows similar TH2 and higher TH17 immune activation compared with extrinsic atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 361–370, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. G. Tjabringa, M. Kamsteeg, H. Koenen et al., “Th2 cytokines induce morphological and molecular characteristics of atopic dermatitis in a human skin equivalent,” Allergy, vol. 66, pp. 18-19, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  55. L. Bao, V. Y. Shi, and L. S. Chan, “IL-4 up-regulates epidermal chemotactic, angiogenic, and pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulates antimicrobial genes in vivo and in vitro: relevant in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis,” Cytokine, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 419–425, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. M. Kamsteeg, M. Bergers, R. de Boer et al., “Type 2 helper T-cell cytokines induce morphologic and molecular characteristics of atopic dermatitis in human skin equivalent,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 178, pp. 2091–2099, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. H. M. Burke, M. C. Davis, C. Otte, and D. C. Mohr, “Depression and cortisol responses to psychological stress: a meta-analysis,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 846–856, 2005, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15961250. View at Google Scholar
  58. A. Buske-Kirschbaum, A. Geiben, H. Hollig, E. Morschhauser, and D. Hellhammer, “Altered responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic adrenomedullary system to stress in patients with atopic dermatitis,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4245–4251, 2002, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12213879. View at Google Scholar
  59. T. F. Oberlander, J. Weinberg, M. Papsdorf, R. Grunau, S. Misri, and A. M. Devlin, “Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses,” Epigenetics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2008, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18536531. View at Google Scholar
  60. S. I. Powers, H. K. Laurent, M. Gunlicks-Stoessel, S. Balaban, and E. Bent, “Depression and anxiety predict sex-specific cortisol responses to interpersonal stress,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 69, pp. 172–179, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. Y. Tokura, “Extrinsic and intrinsic types of atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. K. Musilova and M. Mraz, “MicroRNAs in B-cell lymphomas: how a complex biology gets more complex,” Leukemia, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1004–1017, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. M. Tatsuguchi, H. Y. Seok, T. E. Callis et al., “Expression of microRNAs is dynamically regulated during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1137–1141, 2007, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17498736. View at Google Scholar
  64. Y. Lv, R. Qi, J. Xu et al., “Profiling of serum and urinary microRNAs in children with atopic dermatitis,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 12, p. e115448, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. A. Rebane, T. Runnel, A. Aab et al., “MicroRNA-146a alleviates chronic skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis through suppression of innate immune responses in keratinocytes,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 836.e11–847.e11, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. C. M. Witt, D. Pach, B. Brinkhaus et al., “Safety of acupuncture: results of a prospective observational study with 229,230 patients and introduction of a medical information and consent form,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 91–97, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. A. W. Chan, J. M. Tetzlaff, P. C. Gotzsche et al., “SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials,” BMJ, vol. 346, p. e7586, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. A. J. Vickers, D. J. Straus, B. Fearon, and B. R. Cassileth, “Acupuncture for postchemotherapy fatigue: a phase II study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1731–1735, 2004, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15117996. View at Google Scholar
  69. A. White, M. Cummings, P. Barlas et al., “Defining an adequate dose of acupuncture using a neurophysiological approach—a narrative review of the literature,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2008, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18591910. View at Google Scholar
  70. D. Colquhoun and S. P. Novella, “Acupuncture is theatrical placebo,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 1360–1363, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. K. Linde, K. Niemann, and K. Meissner, “Are sham acupuncture interventions more effective than (other) placebos? A re-analysis of data from the Cochrane review on placebo effects,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 259–264, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. M. V. Madsen, P. C. Gotzsche, and A. Hrobjartsson, “Acupuncture treatment for pain: systematic review of randomised clinical trials with acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, and no acupuncture groups,” BMJ, vol. 338, p. a3115, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. B. Anderson, A. Nielsen, D. McKee, A. Jeffres, and B. Kligler, “Acupuncture and heart rate variability: a systems level approach to understanding mechanism,” Explore (NY), vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. M. S. Hong, H. K. Park, J. S. Yang et al., “Gene expression profile of acupuncture treatment in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease model,” Neurological Research, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. 74–78, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. Y. Zhang, A. Zhang, G. Yan et al., “High-throughput metabolomic approach revealed the acupuncture exerting intervention effects by perturbed signatures and pathways,” Molecular BioSystems, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. N. Stoicea, A. Du, D. C. Lakis, C. Tipton, C. E. Arias-Morales, and S. D. Bergese, “The MiRNA journey from theory to practice as a CNS biomarker,” Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 7, p. 11, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar