Table 1: In vitro and in vivo effects of P. africana phytochemicals on prostate cancer cells.

S/NoClass of compoundPhytochemical compoundsCompound structureCellular targetCellular effectsReference

(a)Pentacyclic triterpenoid saponinsUrsolic acidPC-3 LNCaP BCL-2Inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells;
downregulated Bcl-2
[2, 20, 2228]

(b)Pentacyclic triterpenoid saponinsOleanolic acidPC-3 DU145 LNCaP PI3K/Akt AMPKInhibited cell viability, proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and arrested G0/G1 phase cell cycle in prostate cancer cells[2, 2227, 29, 30]

(c)Triterpeneβ-amyrinPC-3Exhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis on prostate cancer cells[31]

(d)PhenolAtraric acidPC-3-AR ARShowed anti-androgenic activity, inhibited AR translocation to the cell nucleus, decreased cell proliferation of PC-3-AR, and inhibited cellular invasion by prostate cancer cells into the extracellular matrix[6, 9, 32, 33]

(e)PhenolFerulic acidBCL-2 LNCaP PC-3Inhibited the angiogenic pathways, inhibited cell proliferation, and promoted apoptosis of PC-3 and LNCaP by downregulating Bcl2 expression[20, 21, 3437]

(f)PhenolN-butylbenzene-sulfonamidePC-3-AR ARShowed antiandrogenic activity, decreased the cell proliferation of PC-3-AR, and inhibited AR translocation to the cell nucleus[9, 32, 38, 39]

(g)Sterolsβ-sitosterolLNCaPExhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis and suppressed the production of prostaglandins[2, 15, 20, 24, 31, 4043]

(h)Fatty acidLauric acidLNCaPInhibited 5-α-reductase enzyme thus preventing formation of dihydrotestosterone, the modulator of prostate growth[4446]

Molecular structure source: https://en.wikipedia.org/.
PC-3: human prostate cancer cell lines. LNCaP: lymph node carcinoma of prostate cell line. BCL-2: B-cell lymphoma 2 protein, which regulates cell death (apoptosis). DU145: a cell line of prostatic cancer derived from brain metastasis. PI3K/Akt: phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, which regulates multiple biological processes including cell survival, proliferation, growth, and glycogen metabolism. AMPK: 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. AR: androgen receptor which translocates androgen hormones to the nucleus. PC-3-AR: Human prostate cancer cell lines that expressed the androgen receptor.