Figure 2: The neuroprotection effects of jujube. Jujube induces neurite outgrowth and neurothrophic factor expression via cAMP-dependent PKA signaling. Jujube possessed neuroprotection against oxidative stress via enhancing cellular Nrf2-dependent ARE-driven gene expressions. Jujube improves the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and shows inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Jujube increases the level of acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain. Jujube stimulates the transcriptional expression of GABA receptor subunits in rat hippocampal neurons.