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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 3706915, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3706915
Research Article

Enrichment of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater and In Vitro Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 20002, Jerusalem, State of Palestine
2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 20002, Jerusalem, State of Palestine
3Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 20002, Jerusalem, State of Palestine

Correspondence should be addressed to Fuad Al-Rimawi; moc.oohay@54321_dauf

Received 3 September 2017; Revised 16 November 2017; Accepted 27 November 2017; Published 28 December 2017

Academic Editor: Letizia Angiolella

Copyright © 2017 Saleh Abu-Lafi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The production of olive oil generates massive quantities of by-product called olive mill wastewater (OMWW). The uncontrolled disposal of OMWW poses serious environmental problems. The OMWW effluent is rich in several polyphenolic compounds. Liquid-liquid extraction of OMWW using ethyl acetate solvent was used to enrich phenolic compounds under investigation. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the extract were determined. HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to analyze the main three phenolic compounds of OMWW, namely, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was also investigated. Additionally, the OMWW extract was used as natural preservative and antioxidants for olive oil. Results showed that OMWW is very rich in phenolic compounds and has strong antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol but no oleuropein. The OMWW extract showed also positive activities as antibacterial (gram positive and gram negative) and antifungal as well as activities against yeast. The addition of OMWW extract to olive oil samples has an effect on the stability of olive oil as reflected by its acid value, peroxide value, and , and total phenolic content.