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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 3720380, 7 pages
Research Article

Memory Improvement Effect of Ethanol Garlic (A. sativum) Extract in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Is Mediated through Increasing of Hippocampal Sodium-Potassium ATPase, Glutamine Synthetase, and Calcium ATPase Activities

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University, Western Campus, Bushenyi, Uganda

Correspondence should be addressed to Ibrahim Semuyaba;

Received 4 September 2017; Revised 7 November 2017; Accepted 12 December 2017; Published 27 December 2017

Academic Editor: Kuttulebbai N. S. Sirajudeen

Copyright © 2017 Ibrahim Semuyaba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Studies suggest that garlic (A. sativum) improves memory dependent on the hippocampus. However, the effect of ethanol garlic extract on hippocampus Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities as possible mechanisms in memory improvement in diabetic Wistar rats has not been reported. Twenty-four male Wistar rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into three groups with 8 rats each. Group (A), normal control rats, and Group (B), diabetic rats, received 1 ml of normal saline; diabetic rats in Group (C) received 1000 mg/kg of garlic extract orally for 21 days. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 60 mg/kg followed by 120 mg/kg nicotinamide while extraction of garlic was done by cold maceration method. Memory was tested in all groups. After that, the rats were sacrificed, the brain was removed, and the hippocampi were carefully excised and then homogenized. Activities of Na+/K+ ATPase, calcium ATPase, and GS were analyzed from the homogenate. Results showed improvement in memory and a significant increase in hippocampus Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, and GS activities in diabetic rats treated with garlic extract. In conclusion, the increased activity of hippocampus Na+/K+ ATPase, calcium ATPase, and glutamine synthetase may account for the memory improvement.