Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

Table 2

Pathogens responsible for infectious skin diseases.

Skin diseaseAnatomical structure affected by infectionResponsible pathogensReference

Bacterial infections
AbscessesSkin and subcutaneous tissueStaphylococcus aureus; methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)[101]
AcneSebum glandsPropionibacterium acnes; S. epidermidis[8, 102]
ActinomycosisSkin and subcutaneous tissueActinomyces israelii[5]
Boils/carbuncles and furunclesHair folliclesS. aureus[8]
Bromodosis (foot odour)Epidermis/cutaneousBrevibacterium spp.; P. acnes[6, 103]
CellulitisSubcutaneous fatβ-Hemolyticstreptococci; S. aureus; MRSA[7, 8, 101]
EcthymaCutaneousS. aureus; Streptococcus pyogenes[7]
ErysipelasDermis, intradermalS. pyogenes[8]
ErythrasmaEpidermisCorynebacterium minutissimum[5]
FolliculitisHair folliclesS. aureus; MRSA[8, 101]
ImpetigoEpidermisS. pyogenes; S. aureus[8, 104, 105]
Periorbital cellulitisSubcutaneous fatHaemophilus influenzae[106]
Surgical woundsSkin, fascia, and subcutaneous tissueEscherichia coli; Enterococcus spp.; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; S. aureus[8]

Necrotizing infections
Necrotizing fasciitisSkin, fascia, subcutaneous tissue, and muscleS. pyogenes; anaerobic pathogens[5, 8, 107]
Gas forming infectionsSkin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscleGram-negative and various anaerobes[5]
Gas gangreneSkin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscleClostridium spp. (C. perfringens, C. septicum, C. tertium, C. oedematiens, and C. histolyticum)[5, 8, 107]

Fungal infections
Candidal infections (intertrigo, balanitis, nappy rash, angular cheilitis, and paronychia)Superficial skinCandida albicans[7]
EumycetomaSubcutaneous infectionMadurella mycetomatis[108]
Dermatophytosis (tinea pedis/athlete’s foot, tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea manuum, and tinea unguium/onychomycosis)Keratin layer, epidermisDermatophytes (Microsporum, Epidermophyton, and Trichophyton spp.)[8]
Seborrheic dermatitisSubcutaneous infectionMalasseziafurfur[109]
Tinea/pityriasis versicolorSuperficial skinM. furfur[7, 110]

Viral infections
Herpes simplexMucocutaneous epidermidisHerpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, orofacial disease; HSV type 2, genital infection [7]
Chicken poxMucocutaneous epidermidisVaricella zoster
Molluscum contagiosumPrickle cells of epidermidisPoxvirus
ShinglesMucocutaneous epidermidisHerpes zoster

Warts and verrucaeEpidermisHuman papillomavirus[5, 7]