Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

Table 3

Essential oil studies against S. aureus.

Essential Species Main Reference

Abies balsamea (fir/balsam)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.00 mg/mLβ-Pinene (31.00%), bornyl acetate (14.90%), δ-3-carene (14.20%)[99]

Abies holophylla (Manchurian fir)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)5% DMSO21.80 mg/mLBicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol (28.05%), δ-3-carene (13.85%), α-pinene (11.68%), camphene (10.41%) [111]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)>21.80 mg/mL
Abies koreana (Korean fir)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)5% DMSO21.80 mg/mLBornyl ester (41.79%), camphene (15.31%), α-pinene (11.19%)
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)>21.80 mg/mL

Achillea millefolium (yarrow)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Tween 8072.00 mg/mLEucalyptol (24.60%), camphor (16.70%), α-terpineol (10.20%)[112]

Achillea setacea (bristly yarrow)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Tween 804.50 mg/mLSabinene (10.80%), eucalyptol (18.50%)[113]

Angelica archangelica (angelica), rootMICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.75 mg/mLα-Phellandrene (18.50%), α-pinene (13.70%), β-phellandrene (12.60%), δ-3-carene (12.1%) [99]
Angelica archangelica (angelica), seed2.00 mg/mLβ-Phellandrene (59.20%)

Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), flowers MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538) DMSO1.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (39.00%), terpinen-4-ol (32.10%) [114]
Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), aerial parts 0.50 mg/mLα-Pinene (49.40%), terpinen-4-ol (21.80%)
Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), leavesTerpinen-4-ol (24.30%)

Anthemis nobilis (chamomile)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone16.00 mg/mL2-Methylbutyl-2-methyl propanoic acid (31.50%), limonene (18.30%), 3-methylpentyl-2-butenoic acid (16.70%), isobutyl isobutyrate (10.00%)[99]

Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.00 mg/mLEstragole (82.60%)[99]

Backhousia citriodora (lemon myrtle)ADMS. aureus (NCTC 4163)Tween 200.05% v/vGeranial (51.40%), neral (40.90%) [115]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.20% v/v

Boswellia carteri (frankincense) (9 samples) MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600) Acetone5.00–16.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (4.80–40.40%), myrcene (1.60–52.40%), limonene (1.90–20.40%), α-thujene (0.30–52.40%), p-cymene (2.70–16.90%), β-pinene (0.30–13.10%) [116]
Boswellia frereana (frankincense) (3 samples)4.00–12.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (2.00–64.70%), α-thujene (0.00–33.10%), p-cymene (5.40–16.90%)
Boswellia neglecta (frankincense)6.00 mg/mLNCR[117]
α-Pinene (43.40%), β-pinene (13.10%)[116]
Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense)1.50 mg/mLNCR [117]
Boswellia rivae (frankincense)2.50 mg/mL
Boswellia sacra (frankincense) (2 samples)4.00–8.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (18.30–28.00%), α-thujene (3.90–11.20%), limonene (11.20–13.10%) [116]
Boswellia spp. (frankincense) (4 samples)6.00–9.30 mg/mLα-Pinene (18.80–24.20%), limonene (11.70–19.00%)
Boswellia thurifera (frankincense)10.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (28.0%), limonene (14.6%)

Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLBicyclosesquiphellandrene (19.50%), β-farnesene (13.90%) [99]
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang), heads4.00 mg/mLBenzyl acetate (31.90%), linalool (27.00%), methyl benzoate (10.40%)

Canarium luzonicum (elemi)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.00 mg/mLLimonene (41.90%), elemol (21.60%), α-phellandrene (11.40%)[99]

Carum carvi (caraway)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (27.60%), carvone (67.50%)[99]
S. aureusDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLDL-limonene (53.35%), β-selinene (11.08%), β-elemene (10.09%)[118]

Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove)ADM90S. aureus (ATCC 25923, 16 MRSA and 15 MSSA clinical isolates)Tween 802.70 mg/mLEugenol (75.85%), eugenol acetate (16.38%)[119]

Cinnamomum Cassia (cinnamon) MICS. aureus DMSO ≤1.00 μg/mLtrans-Caryophyllene (17.18%), eugenol (14.67%), [118]
Linalool L (14.52%), trans-cinnamyl acetate (13.85%), cymol (11.79%), cinnamaldehyde (11.25%)

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLEugenol (80.00%)[99]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.0.02 mg/mLNCR[85]
ADM10% DMSO3.20 mg/mL[80]
ADM90S. aureus (ATCC 25923, 16 MRSA and 15 MSSA clinical isolates)Tween 800.25 mg/mLCinnamaldehyde (86.31%)[119]

Citrus aurantifolia (lime)ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO12.80 mg/mLCinnamaldehyde (52.42%)[80]

Citrus aurantium (bitter orange), flowersMICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)50% DMSO0.31 mg/mLLimonene (27.50%), E-nerolidol (17.50%), α-terpineol (14.00%) [120]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6536)0.63 mg/mL

Citrus aurantium (petitgrain)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6536)Acetone4.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (54.90%), linalool (21.10%)[99]

Citrus bergamia (bergamot)MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538)n.m.1.25 μL/mLBergamol (16.10%), linalool (14.02%), D-limonene (13.76%)[62]

Citrus grandis (grapefruit)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.00 mg/mLLimonene (74.80%)[99]

Citrus medica limonum (lemon)ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO>12.80 mg/mLNCR[80]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.00 mg/mL[99]

Citrus sinensis (orange)ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO>12.80 mg/mL NCR[80]
MACS. aureus (ATCC 9144)0.1% ethanol0.94 mg/L[121]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mLLimonene (93.20%)[99]

Commiphora guidotti (myrrh)MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone1.50 mg/mL(E)-β-Ocimene (52.60%), α-santalene (11.10%), (E)-bisabolene (16.00%)[117]

Commiphora myrrha (myrrh)MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone1.30 mg/mLFuranogermacrene (15.90%), furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (44.30%)[117]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)2.00 mg/mLFuranoeudesma-1,3-diene (57.70%), lindestrene (16.30%)[117]

Coriandrum sativum (coriander), seedMICS. aureus (7 clinical isolates)0.5% DMSO with Tween 800.16 mg/mLNCR[122]

Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress), branches MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923) 10% DMSO1.50 μg/mLα-Pinene (58.60%), δ-3-carene (15.60%) [123]
Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress),female cones2.95 μg/mLα-Pinene (60.50%), δ-3-carene (15.30%)
Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress), leaves0.98 μg/mLα-Pinene (20.00%), umbellulone (18.40%)

Cupressus sempervirens (cypress)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone12.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (41.20%), δ-3-carene (23.70%)[99]

Cymbopogon giganteus (lemongrass)MICS. aureus (ATCC 9144)0.5% ethanol2.10 mg/mLLimonene (42.00%), trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.20%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12.00%)[124]

Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) MICS. aureus (ATCC 9144)0.5% ethanol2.50 mg/mLGeranial (48.10%), neral (34.60%), myrcene (11.00%)[124]
S. aureusDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLGeranial (47.34%), β-myrcene (16.53%), Z-citral (8.36%)[118]
MACS. aureus (MTCC 96)Sodium taurocholate0.80–0.27 μL/mLCitral (72.80%)[125, 126]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.67 mg/mLGeranial (44.80%)[99]

Cymbopogon martinii (palmarosa)MACS. aureus (MTCC 96)Sodium taurocholate0.80 μL/mLGeraniol (61.6%)[125, 126]

Cymbopogon nardus (citronella)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mLCitronellal (38.30%), geraniol (20.70%), citronellol (18.80%)[99]

Daucus carota (carrot seed)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLCarotol (44.40%)[99]

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalyptus)MACS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Acetone3.90 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (54.37%), α-pinene (13.24%) [127]
S. aureus (clinical isolate)

Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923) Tween 80 10.00 mg/mL 1,8-Cineol (81.93%) [128]
MRSA (ATCC 10442)
MRSA (MRSA USA 300)
MICS. aureus (ATCC 43387)DMSO0.20% v/vNCR[129]
MACS. aureus (MTCC 96)Sodium taurocholate0.41 μL/mLCineole (23.20%)[125, 126]
ADMMRSA (ATCC 33592) Tween 2085.60 μg/mLEucalyptol (47.20%), (+)-spathulenol (18.10%) [81]
S. aureus (ATCC 25922)51.36 μg/mL
MRSA (14 clinical isolates)8.56–85.60 μg/mL
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (58.00%), α-terpineol (13.20%)[99]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Acetone2.00 mg/mLNCR [130]
MRSA (ATCC 33592)0.75 mg/mL

Eucalyptus radiata (eucalyptus) MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923) Acetone2.00 mg/mL 1,8-Cineole , α-terpineol [130]
MRSA (ATCC 33592)1.00–2.00 mg/mL

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalyptus)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Acetone0.50 mg/mLNCR [130]
MRSA (ATCC 33592)

Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Acetone1.00 mg/mLNCR [130]
MRSA (ATCC 33592)

Eucalyptus smithii (eucalyptus)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Acetone2.00 mg/mLNCR [130]
MRSA (ATCC 33592)

Eucalyptus dives (eucalyptus)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Acetone2.00 mg/mLNCR [130]
MRSA (ATCC 33592)1.00 mg/mL

Eucalyptus intertexta (eucalyptus)MICS. aureus (ATCC 29737)10% DSMO7.80 μg/mLNCR[131]

Eucalyptus largiflorens (eucalyptus)MACS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.7.80 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (70.32%), α-pinene (15.46%) [127]
S. aureus (clinical isolate)
MICS. aureus (ATCC 29737)10% DSMO250.00 μg/mLNCR[131]

Eucalyptus melliodora (eucalyptus)MACS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.3.90 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (67.65%), α-pinene (18.58%) [127]
S. aureus (clinical isolate)

Eucalyptus polycarpa (eucalyptus)MACS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.1.95 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (50.12%) [127]
S. aureus (clinical isolate)3.90 μg/mL

Foeniculum dulce (fennel)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLE-Anethole (79.10%)[99]

Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) MACS. aureus (ATCC 25923) DMSO10.00 mg/mLtrans-Anethole (68.53%), estragole (10.42%)[132]
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) (6 samples) MICS. aureus1.00 μg/mLtrans-Anethole (33.3%), DL-limonene (19.66%), carvone (12.03%)[118]
S. aureus (ATCC 28213)125.00–500.00 μg/mLFenchone (16.90–34.70%), estragole (2.50–66.00%), trans-anethole (7.90–77.70%)[133]

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare (fennel), Aurelio MACS. aureus (ATCC 25923) Tween 2050.00–100.00 μg/mLLimonene (16.50–21.50%), (E)-anethole (59.80–66.00%) [134]
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare (fennel), SpartacoLimonene (0.20–17.70%), (E)-anethole (66.30–90.40%)

Geranium dissectum (geranium)MICS. aureusDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLβ-Citronellol (25.45%), geraniol (13.83%)[118]

Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.00 mg/mLIsopinocamphone (48.70%), pinocamphone (15.50%)[99]

Juniperi aetheroleum (juniper)MAC80S. aureus (ATCC 6538)n.m.40.00% v/vα-Pinene (29.17%), β-pinene (17.84%), sabinene (13.55%) [135]
MAC80S. aureus (MFBF)15.00% v/v

Juniperus communis (juniper), berryMICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.10.00 mg/mLNCR[85]
MICMRSA (15 clinical isolates)Ethanol>2.00% v/v[136]

Juniperus excelsa (juniper), berries, DojranADMS. aureus (ATCC 29213)50% DSMO>50.00%α-Pinene (70.81%) [87]
Juniperus excelsa (juniper), leaves, Dojran125.00%α-Pinene (33.83%)
Juniperus excelsa (juniper), leaves, Ohrid125.00%Sabinene (29.49%)

Juniperus officinalis (juniper), berryMICS. aureus (ATCC 29213)Tween 8010.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (39.76%) [128]
Juniperus officinalis (juniper), berryMRSA (clinical isolates)20.00 mg/mL

Juniperus virginiana (juniper) MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538) Acetone2.00 mg/mLThujopsene (29.80%), cedrol (14.90%), α-cedrene (12.40%) [99]
Juniperus virginiana (juniper), berries3.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (20.50%), myrcene (13.70%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (10.70%)

Kunzea ericoides (Kānuka)MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 800.25% v/vα-Pinene (61.60%) [137]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.20% v/v
MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone8.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (26.2–46.7%), p-cymene (5.8–19.1%)[138]

Laurus nobilis (bay)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone0.83 mg/mLEugenol (57.20%), myrcene (14.30%), carvacrol (12.70%)[99]

Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (36.70%), linalool (31.40%), terpinen-4-ol (14.90%)[99]
S. aureus (NCTC 6571)10% DSMO310.00 μg/mLLinalool (25.10%), linalyl acetate (22.50%) [139]
S. aureus (NCTC 1803)320.40 μg/mL
MRSA (15 clinical isolates)Ethanol0.50% v/vNCR[136]
S. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone8.60 mg/mLLinalool (30.80%), linalyl acetate (31.30%)[140]
S. aureus (clinical strain and ATCC 6538) Acetone 2.00 mg/mL Linalyl acetate (36.7%), linalool (31.4%), terpinen-4-ol (14.9%) [99]
MRSA (clinical strain and 43300)
Methicillin-gentamicin-resistant S. aureus (MGRSA) (ATCC 33592)

Lavandula dentata (French lavender)MICS. aureus (BNI 18)5% DMSO1.53 mg/mLCamphor (12.40%)[141]
Lavandula officinalis (lavender)MICS. aureusDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLδ-3-Carene (17.14%), α-fenchene (16.79%), diethyl phthalate (13.84%)[118]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender)MICS. aureus (STCC 976)Tween 802.00 μL/mL10s,11s-Himachala-3(12),4-diene (23.62%), cubenol (16.19%)[142]

Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), flowerMICMRSA (clinical isolate)20% DMSO31.25 μg/mLα-Fenchone (39.20%) [47]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), leaf125.00 μg/mLα-Fenchone (41.90%), 1,8-cineole (15.60%), camphor (12.10%)

Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 800.10% v/v(−)-()-Calamenene (14.50%), leptospermone (17.60%) [137]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.05% v/v
MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone4.00 mg/mLEudesma-4(14),11-diene (6.2–14.5%), α-selinene (5.90–13.5%), ()-methyl cinnamate (9.2–19.5%)[138]

Litsea cubeba (May Chang)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.50 mg/mLGeranial (45.60%), nerol (31.20%)[99]

Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.50 mg/mLBisabolene oxide A (46.90%), β-farnesene (19.20%)[99]

Matricaria recutita (German chamomile)ADM90S. aureus (ATCC 25923, 16 MRSA and 15 MSSA clinical isolates)Tween 8026.50 mg/mLChamazulene (31.48%), α-bisabolol (15.71%), bisabolol oxide (15.71%)[119]

Matricaria songarica (chamomile)MICS. aureus (CCTCC AB91093)Tween 8050.00 μg/mLE-β-Farnesene (10.58%), bisabolol oxide A (10.46%)[143]

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree)ADMS. aureus (NCIM 2079)Tween 801.00%NCR [79]
S. aureus (clinical isolate)
MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538) Tween 800.25% v/vα-Terpinene (11.40%), γ-terpinene (22.50%), terpinen-4-ol (35.20%) [137]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.35% v/v
MICS. aureus (ATCC 29213)None used0.50% (v/v)Terpinen-4-ol (40.00%), δ-terpinen (13.00%), p-cymene (13.00%)[97]
MRSA (98 clinical isolates) n.m.512.00–2048.00 mg/L NCR[144]
S. aureus (NCIB 6571)1.00% v/v[145]
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (9 clinical isolates)Polyoxyl 35 castor oil0.63–2.50% v/vTerpinen-4-ol (>35.00%) [146]
MRSA (10 clinical isolates)0.30–0.63% v/v
0.30% v/v
MRSA (15 clinical isolates)Ethanol0.25% v/vNCR[136]
S. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone8.60 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (38.60%), γ-terpinene (21.60%)[140]
MIC90S. aureus (NCTC 6571) Tween 800.25% v/vTerpinen-4-ol (35.70%) [147]
S. aureus (105 clinical isolates)0.12–0.50% v/v
MICMRSA (60 clinical isolates, 29 mupirocin-resistant)0.25%[148]
MICS. aureus (NCTC 8325)n.m.0.50% (v/v)Terpinen-4-ol (39.80%), γ-terpinene (17.80%)[149]
0.25% (v/v)[150]
MIC90MRSA (100 clinical isolates)Tween 800.16–0.32%NCR[151]
MICS. aureus (69 clinical isolates)Tween 800.12–0.50% v/vTerpinen-4-ol (35.70%)[152]
ADMS. aureus (NCTC 4163)Tween 200.20% v/vTerpinen-4-ol (42.80%), γ-terpinene (18.20%) [115]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.30% v/v
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone8.00 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (49.30%), -terpinene (16.90%)[99]
MACS. aureus (2 clinical isolates)n.m.0.10–0.20%Eucalyptol (70.08%) [153]
S. aureus (ATCC 25923)0.20%
S. aureus (NCTC 9518)0.63–1.25% v/vα-Pinene (11.95%), α-terpinene (14.63%), terpinen-4-ol (29.50%), p-cymene (17.74%) [154]
α-Pinene (24.87%), -terpinene (12.47%), terpinen-4-ol (28.59%)

Melaleuca cajuputi (cajuput) MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923) Tween 802.50 mg/mL 1,8-Cineol (67.60%) [128]
MRSA (ATCC 10442)5.00 mg/mL
MRSA (clinical isolate)2.50 mg/mL
MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538)0.20% v/v1,8-Cineole (55.50%) [137]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.30% v/v

Melaleuca quinquenervia (niaouli)MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 800.20% v/v1,8-Cineole (61.20%) [137]
MRSA (clinical isolate)0.30% v/v

Melaleuca viridiflora (niaouli)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (45.90%), -terpinene (21.00%)[99]

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)MICS. aureus (NCTC 6571)10% DSMO300.60 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (27.40%), α-thujone (16.30%), β-thujone (11.20%), borneol (10.40%) [139]
MICS. aureus (NCTC 1803)330.30 μg/mL

Mentha piperita (peppermint) MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone11.90 mg/mLMenthone (18.20%), menthol (42.90%) [140]
S. aureus (ATCC 25923) Tween 80 0.60 mg/mL 1,8-Cineol (12.06%), menthone (22.24%), menthol (47.29%) [128]
MRSA (ATCC 10442)
MRSA (clinical isolate)
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)DMSO0.63–2.50 mg/mLMenthol (27.50–42.30%), menthone (18.40–27.90%)[155]
S. aureus≤1.00 μg/mLMenthone (40.82%), carvone (24.16%)[118]
MRSA (15 clinical isolates)Ethanol0.50% v/vNCR[136]
S. aureus (ATCC 43387)DMSO0.20% v/v[129]
MACS. aureus (MTCC 96)Sodium taurocholate1.66 μL/mLMenthol (36.40%)[125, 126]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 9144)0.5% ethanol8.30 mg/mLMenthol (39.30%), menthone (25.20%)[156]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mLMenthol (47.50%), menthone (18.60%)[99]

Myrtus communis (myrtle)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLMyrtenyl acetate (28.20%), 1,8-cineole (25.60%), α-pinene (12.50%)[99]
ADMS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 202.80 mg/mLNCR [157]
S. aureus (ATCC 29213)

Ocimum basilicum (basil)MICS. aureus (ATCC 9144)0.5% ethanol2.50 mg/mLLinalool (57.00%), eugenol (19.20%)[156]
MACS. aureus (ATCC 6538)n.m.1.25 μL/mLEugenol (62.60%), caryophyllene (21.51%)[62]
Tween 80% v/vLinalool (54.95%), methyl chavicol (11.98%)[158]
S. aureus (3 clinical strains)Tween 80 % v/vLinalool (54.95%), methyl chavicol (11.98%)[158]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.50 mg/mLLinalool (54.10%)[99]
MIC90S. aureus (ATCC 6538)n.m.45.00 μg/mLMethyl chavicol (46.90%), geranial (19.10%), neral (15.15%)[159]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 800.68–11.74 μg/mLLinalool (30.30–58.60%)[160]

Origanum acutidens (Turkey oregano) MICS. aureus (clinical isolate)10% DMSO125.00 μg/mLCarvacrol (72.00%) [161]
S. aureus (ATCC2913)

Origanum majorana (marjoram)MICS. aureus (ATCC 43387)DMSO0.05% v/vNCR[129]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (46.00%), linalool (26.10%)[99]

Origanum microphyllum (oregano)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Tween 806.21 mg/mLTerpin-4-ol (24.86%), γ-terpinene (13.83%), linalool (10.81%)[162]

Origanum scabrum (oregano)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)Tween 800.35 mg/mLcarvacrol (74.86%)[162]

Origanum vulgare (oregano)ADMS. aureus (ATCC 6538)1% DMSO0.13% v/vp-Cymene (14.60%), γ-terpinene (11.70%), thymol (24.70%), carvacrol (14.00%) [163]
S. aureus (ATCC 25923)
S. aureus (ATCC 43300)
MRSA (22 isolates)0.06–0.13% v/v
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)n.m.575.00 mg/LNCR[164]
MAC0.63.00 μL/mLCarvacrol (30.17%), p-cymene (15.20%), γ-terpinen (12.44%)[62]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 43387)DMSO0.10% v/vNCR[129]
ADMS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 200.70 mg/mL [157]
S. aureus (ATCC 29213)

Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Greek oregano)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO + Tween 80170.70 μg/mLLinalool (96.31%) [165]
Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare (oregano)106.70 μg/mLThymol (58.31%), carvacrol (16.11%), p-cymene (13.45%)

Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO>12.80 mg/mLNCR[80]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 200.72 mg/mL [157]
S. aureus (ATCC 29213)
MICS. aureus (strains isolated from skin lesions) Ethanol0.25–1.50 mL/mL Citronellol (26.70%), geraniol (13.40%) [166]
S. aureus (strains isolated postoperatively)0.50–2.25 mL/mL
MRSA and MSSA (clinical strains)1.00 mL/mL
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.50 mg/mLCitronellol (34.20%), geraniol (15.70%)[99]

Perovskia abrotanoides (Russian sage)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO8.00 μL/mLCamphor (23.00%), 1,8-cineole (22.00%), α-pinene (12.00%)[167]

Pimpinella anisum (anise)MICS. aureusDMSO125.00 μg/mLNCR[168]
≤1.00 μg/mLAnethole (64.82%)[118]

Pinus sylvestris (pine)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mLBornyl acetate (42.30%), camphene (11.80%), α-pinene (11.00%)[99]

Piper nigrum (black pepper)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLβ-Caryophyllene (33.80%), limonene (16.40%)[99]

Pogostemon cablin (patchouli)MICS. aureus (NCTC 6571)10% DSMO395.20 μg/mLα-Guaiene (13.80%), α-bulnesene (17.10%), patchouli alcohol (22.70%) [139]
S. aureus (NCTC 1803)520.00 μg/mL

Pogostemon patchouli (patchouli)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.50 mg/mLPatchouli alcohol (37.30%), α-bulnesene (14.60%), α-guaiene (12.50%)[99]

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 800.13% v/v1,8-Cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%)[169]
S. aureus (NCTC 6571)10% DSMO305.30 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (29.2%), (+)-camphor (17.2%) [139]
S. aureus (NCTC 1803)310.40 μg/mL
MRSA (clinical isolate)Tween 800.03% v/v1,8-Cineole (26.54%), α-pinene (20.14%), camphene (11.38%), camphor (12.88%)[170]
S. aureus (MTCC 96)n.m.11.00 mg/mLNCR[171]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Hexane1.88–7.50 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (10.56–11.91%), camphor (16.57–16.89%), verbenone (17.43–23.79%)[172]
ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO12.80 mg/mLNCR[80]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 20 5.60 mg/mL [157]
S. aureus (ATCC 29213)
MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone6.20 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (41.40%), α-pinene (13.30%), camphor (12.40%)[140]
S. aureus (ATCC 43387)DMSO0.20% v/vNCR[129]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (48.00%)[99]
ADM90S. aureus (ATCC 25923, 16 MRSA and 15 MSSA clinical isolates)Tween 808.60 mg/mLCamphor (27.51%), limonene (21.01%), myrcene (11.19%), α-pinene (10.37%)[119]

Salvia bracteata (sage)MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)50.00 μg/mLCaryophyllene oxide (16.60%)[173]
Salvia eremophila (sage)MICS. aureus (ATCC 29737)10% DMSO8.00 μg/mLBorneol (21.83%), α-pinene (18.80%), bornyl acetate (18.68%)[174]
Salvia nilotica (sage)ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.5.40 mg/mLtrans-Caryophyllene (10.90%)[175]

Salvia officinalis (sage) MICS. aureus (NCTC 6571)10% DSMO302.40 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (27.40%), α-thujone (16.30%), β-thujone (11.20%), borneol (10.40%) [139]
S. aureus (NCTC 1803)324.30 μg/mL
S. aureus (ATCC 43387)DMSO0.20% v/vNCR[129]
ADMS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 2011.20 mg/mLNCR [157]
S. aureus (ATCC 29213)5.60 mg/mL
S. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.7.50 mg/mL[176]

Salvia ringens (sage) MICS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.NIα-Pinene (12.85%), 1,8-cineole (46.42%)[177]
Salvia rosifolia (sage) (3 samples)MRSA20% DMSO125.00–1000.00 μg/mLα-Pinene (15.70–34.80%), 1,8-cineole (16.60–25.10%), β-pinene (6.70–13.50%)[178]
Salvia rubifolia (sage)S. aureus (ATCC 25923)Tween 2050.00 μg/mLγ-Muurolene (11.80%)[173]

Salvia sclarea (clary sage)MICS. aureus (11 MRSA and 16 MSSA)Ethanol3.75–5.25Linalyl acetate (57.90%), linalool (12.40%)[179]
S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (72.90%), linalool (11.90%)[99]

Santalum album (sandalwood)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone0.25 mg/mLα-Santalol (32.10%)[99]

Styrax benzoin (benzoin)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone2.00 mg/mLcinnamyl alcohol (44.80%), benzene propanol (21.70%)[99]

Syzygium aromaticum (clove) MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 800.13% v/vEugenol (68.52%), β-caryophyllene (19.00%), 2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]phenol acetate (10.15%)[169]
S. aureusDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLEugenol (84.07%), isoeugenol (10.39%)[118]
ADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)10% DMSO>6.40 mg/mLNCR[80]
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone1.50 mg/mLEugenol (82.20%), eugenol acetate (13.20%)[99]

Tagetes minuta (Mexican marigold)MIC90S. aureus (ATCC 6538)n.m.67.00 μg/mLDihydrotagetone (33.90%), E-ocimene (19.90%), tagetone (16.10%)[159]
Tagetes patula (French marigold)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone4.00 mg/mL(E)-β-Ocimene (41.30%), E-tagetone (11.20%), verbenone (10.90%)[99]

Thymbra spicata (thyme)MICS. aureus (ATCC 29213) Tween 802.25 mg/mLCarvacrol (60.39%), γ-terpinene (12.95%)[180]
Thymus capitatus (thyme)S. aureus (ATCC 25923)900.00 μg/mLp-Cymene (26.40%), thymol (29.30%), carvacrol (10.80%) [181]
Thymus capitatus (thyme), commercialα-Pinene (25.20%), linalool (10.30%), thymol (46.10%)
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), Gennargentu225.00 μg/mLThymol (46.90%), carvacrol (20.60%)
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), Limbara900.00 μg/mLp-Cymene (27.60%), thymol (50.30%)

Thymus hyemalis (thyme) (thymol, thymol/linalool, carvacrol chemotypes)MACS. aureus (CECT 239)95% ethanol<0.20–0.50 μL/mLp-Cymene (16.00–19.80%), linalool (2.10–16.60%), thymol (2.90–43.00%), carvacrol (0.30–40.10%)[61]

Thymus numidicusADMS. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.0.23 mg/mLNCR[176]
Thymus serpyllum (thyme)S. aureus (ATCC 6538)Tween 200.28 mg/mL [157]
S. aureus (ATCC 29213)0.70 mg/mL

Thymus vulgaris (thyme)MICS. aureusDMSO31.20 μg/mLNCR[168]
S. aureus (NCTC 6571)10% DSMO160.50 μg/mLp-Cymene (17.90%), thymol (52.40%) [139]
S. aureus (NCTC 1803)210.00 μg/mL
S. aureus (ATCC 25923)n.m.0.40 mg/mLNCR[85]
ADMS. aureus (ATCC 433000) Ethanol0.25 μL/mLThymol (38.1%), p-cymene (29.10%)[182]
S. aureus (2 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from hands)0.50 μL/mL Thymol (38.1%), p-cymene (29.10%) [182]
S. aureus (6 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from wounds)0.50–1.00 μL/mL
S. aureus (4 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from ulcers)0.50–0.75 μL/mL
S. aureus (multidrug-resistant clinical strain from abscesses)0.25 μL/mL
MICS. aureus (ATCC 12600)Acetone1.30 mg/mLThymol (47.20%), p-cymene (22.10%)[140]
MRSA (15 clinical isolates)Ethanol0.50% v/vNCR[136]
ADMMRSA (ATCC 33592)Tween 2018.50 μg/mLThymol (48.1%), p-cymene (15.60%), γ-terpinene (15.40%) [81]
S. aureus (ATCC 25922)
MRSA (14 clinical isolates)18.50–37.00 μg/mL
MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone3.33 mg/mLp-Cymene (39.90%), thymol (20.70%)[99]

Thymus vulgaris (thyme) (thymol chemotype) MACS.aureus (CECT 239) 95% ethanol<0.20 μL/mLp-Cymene (18.70%), thymol (57.70%) [61]
Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis (thyme) (thymol and two linalool chemotypes)<0.20–1.20 μL/mLp-Cymene (0.50–11.20%), (E)-sabinene hydrate (0.20–18.20%), linalool (2.00–82.30%)

Vetiveria zizanioides/Andropogon muricatus (vetiver)MICS. aureus (ATCC 6538)Acetone0.75 mg/mLZizanol (13.6%), β-vetirenene (7.2%)[99]

name (common name), part of plant (if applicable).
: microdilution method; MAC: macrodilution method; ADM: agar dilution method; CTA: contact time assay.
Type Culture Collection, Rockville, USA (ATCC); Colección Espanõla de Cultivos Tipo (CECT); collection of microorganisms of the Department of Microbiology (MFBF); culture collection of antibiotics resistant microbes (CCRM); Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, clinical isolate (OGU); Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina (LM); Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC); Mycology Laboratory (LM); National Center of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM); National Collection of Type Cultures, London, Great Britain (NCTC); Spanish Collection of Type Cultures (STCC).
concentration was not included; n.m.: not mentioned.
: no inhibition.
: no composition results reported.