Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

Table 4

Antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils against pathogens associated with acne.

Essential Species Main Reference

Abies koreana (Korean fir) MICS. epidermidis (antibiotic-susceptible strain SK4) n.m.0.63 μL/mL Bornyl acetate (30.40%), limonene (19.00%) [208]
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK9)0.31 μL/mL
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK19)5.00 μL/mL
P. acnes (ATCC 3314)0.31 μL/mL
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 4)
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 7)0.63 μL/mL

Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), flowers MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228) DMSO0.25 mg/mL-Pinene (39.00%), terpinen-4-ol (32.10%) [114]
Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), aerial parts0.13 mg/mL-Pinene (49.40%), terpinen-4-ol (21.80%)
Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), leaves0.06 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (24.30%)

Anthemis nobilis (chamomile)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.13% v/vNCR[209]

Cananga odorata var. fruticosa (dwarf ylang-ylang)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)
ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 80>4.00% v/vNCR[210]

Cinnamomum burmannii (cinnamon stick) MICS. epidermidis (16 clinical isolates)5% propylene glycol (PG)0.50–2.00% Cinnamaldehyde [211]
S. epidermidis strains RP62A (ATCC 35984)1.00%
S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)0.50%

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.012% v/vNCR[209]

Citrus aurantium (bitter orange), flowersMICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)50% DMSO1.25 mg/mLLimonene (27.50%), E-nerolidol (17.5%), -terpineol (14.00%)[120]

Citrus medica limonum (lemon)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[209]

Citrus natsudaidai (Japanese summer orange)MICS. epidermidis (KCTC 3958)5% Tween 8010.00 μL/mLLimonene (81.60%) [102]
P. acnes (ATCC 6919)0.31 μL/mL

Citrus paradisi (grapefruit)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[209]
MACS. epidermidis (KCTC 3958)>50.00 μL/mLLimonene (55.40–91.70%), myrcene (2.10–32.10%)[212]

Citrus species (citrus) (14 spp.) MACS. epidermidis (KCTC 3958) Tween 80>50.00 μL/mL Limonene (55.40–91.70%), myrcene (2.10–32.10%) [212]
P. acnes (ATCC 6919)1.25–>50.00 μL/mL

Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 801.00% v/vNCR [210]
Curcuma longa (turmeric)>4.00% v/v
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)0.13% v/v
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella)

Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 14990)Tween 8010.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (81.93%)[128]
S. epidermidis (RP62A)5% DSMO4.00 mg/LNCR [213]
S. epidermidis (clinical isolate TK1)8.00 mg/L
P. acnes (DMST 14917)n.m.9.38 mg/mLp-Cymene (28.75%), -terpinene (44.60%)[214]
ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 804.00% v/vNCR[210]

Eucalyptus intertexta (eucalyptus)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)10% DSMO7.80 μg/mLNCR [131]
Eucalyptus largiflorens (eucalyptus)125.00 μg/mL

Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Aurelio MACS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228) Tween 2050.00 μg/mLLimonene (16.50–21.50%), (E)-anethole (59.80–66.00%) [134]
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Spartaco25.00–50.00 μg/mLLimonene (0.20–17.70%), (E)-anethole (66.30–90.40%)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) (6 samples)MICDMSO250.00–750.00 μg/mLFenchone (16.90–34.70%), estragole (2.50–66.00%), trans-anethole (7.90–77.70%)[133]

Jasminum grandiflora (jasmine)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.50% v/v NCR[209]
Jasminum sambac (jasmine)ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 802.00% v/v[210]

Juniperi aetheroleum (juniper)MAC80S. epidermidis (MFBF)n.m.40.00% v/v-Pinene (29.17%), -pinene (17.84%), sabinene (13.55%)[135]
Juniperus communis (juniper)CTAP. acnes (ATCC 6919)PEG 2002.00 mg/mL-Pinene (22.75%), -myrcene (11.88%)[215]
Juniperus officinalis (juniper), berryMICS. epidermidis (ATCC 14990)Tween 8020.00 mg/mL-Pinene (39.76%)[128]

Kunzea ericoides (Kānuka)MACS. epidermidis (clinical isolate)Tween 800.25% v/v-Pinene (61.60%)[137]
MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone8.00 mg/mL-Pinene (26.2–46.7%), p-cymene (5.8–19.1%) [138]
MICP. acnes (ATCC 11827)Acetone4.00 mg/mL

Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone6.20 mg/mLLinalool (30.80%), linalyl acetate (31.30%)[140]
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-susceptible strain SK4)n.m.1.00 μL/mL NCR [208]
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK9)n.m.0.13 μL/mL
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK19)n.m.1.00 μL/mL
P. acnes (ATCC 3314)n.m.0.25 μL/mL
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 4)n.m.1.25 μL/mL
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 7)n.m.0.25 μL/mL
ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 802.00% v/vNCR[210]

Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), flowerMICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)20% DMSO250.00 μg/mL-Fenchone (39.20%) [47]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), leafMIC-Fenchone (41.90%), 1,8-cineole (15.60%), camphor (12.10%)
Lavandula stoechas (lavender)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.13% v/vNCR[209]

Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)MACS. epidermidis (clinical isolate)Tween 800.05% v/v(−)-(E)-Calamenene (14.50%), leptospermone (17.60%)[137]
MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone4.00 mg/mLEudesma-4(14),11-diene (6.20–14.50%), -selinene (5.90–13.50%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (9.20–19.50%) [138]
P. acnes (ATCC 11827)1.00 mg/mL

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree)ADMS. epidermidis (NCIM number 2493) Tween 801.00%NCR [79]
S. epidermidis (clinical isolate)
MACS. epidermidis (clinical isolate)0.45% v/v-Terpinene (11.40%), -terpinene (22.50%), terpinen-4-ol (35.20%)[137]
MICS. epidermidis (15 clinical isolates)0.12–1.00% v/vTerpinen-4-ol (35.70%)[152]
MICS. epidermidis (RP62A)5% DSMO2.00 mg/LNCR [213]
S. epidermidis (clinical isolate TK1)16.00 mg/L
MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone6.20 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (38.60%), -terpinene (21.60%)[140]
MICS. epidermidis (antibiotic-susceptible strain SK4) n.m.0.13 μL/mLNCR [208]
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK9)1.00 μL/mL
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK19)
MACP. acnes (MTCC 1951)Tween 800.50% v/vNCR[79]
P. acnes (32 clinical strains)0.25–0.50%Terpinen-4-ol (35.70%)[92]
ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 801.00% v/vNCR[210]
MICP. acnes (ATCC 3314)n.m.0.25 μL/mLNCR [208]
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 4)2.50 μL/mL
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 7)0.25 μL/mL
MACS. epidermidis (NCTC 11047)n.m.0.63–1.25% v/v-Pinene (11.95%), -terpinene (14.63%), terpinen-4-ol (29.5%), p-cymene (17.74%) [154]
P. acnes (NCTC 737)0.31–0.63% v/v
S. epidermidis (NCTC 11047)0.63–1.25% v/v-Pinene (24.87%), -terpinene (12.47%), terpinen-4-ol (28.59%)
P. acnes (NCTC 737)0.31–0.63% v/v

Melaleuca cajuputi (cajuput)MACS. epidermidis (clinical isolate)Tween 800.40% v/v1,8-Cineole (55.50%)[137]
MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 14990)Tween 8010.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (67.60%)[128]

Melaleuca quinquenervia (niaouli)MACS. epidermidis (clinical isolate)tween 800.40% v/v1,8-Cineole (61.20%)[137]

Mentha piperita (peppermint) MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 14990)Tween 801.25 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (12.06%), menthone (22.24%), menthol (47.29%)[128]
S. epidermidis (NCTC 12228)DMSO0.63–2.50 mg/mLMenthol (27.50–42.30%), menthone (18.40–27.90%)[155]
S. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone6.20 mg/mLMenthone (18.20%), menthol (42.90%)[140]
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-susceptible strain SK4) n.m.0.13 μL/mL NCR [208]
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK9)0.50 μL/mL
S. epidermidis (antibiotic-resistant strain SK19)
P. acnes (ATCC 3314)0.25 μL/mL
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 4)0.63 μL/mL
P. acnes (antibiotic-resistant strain SKA 7)0.06 μL/mL

Mentha spicata (spearmint)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[209]

Ocimum americanum (hoary basil)ADMP. acnes (DMST 14916)Polysorbate 80>5.00% v/vNeral (27.20%), geraniol (32.00%)[44]

Ocimum basilicum (basil)MACS. epidermidis (2 clinical strains)Tween 80(0.15–0.30) × 10−2% v/vLinalool (54.95%), methyl chavicol (11.98%)[158]
ADMP. acnes (DMST 14916)Polysorbate 802.00% v/vMethyl chavicol (93.00%)[44]
P. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 80>4.00% v/vNCR[210]

Ocimum sanctum (holy basil) ADMP. acnes (DMST 14916)Polysorbate 803.0% v/vEugenol (41.50%), methyl eugenol (11.80%), -caryophyllene (23.70%)[44]
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)P. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 802.00% v/vNCR[210]

Origanum acutidens (Turkey oregano)MICS. epidermis (A233)10% DMSO125.00 μg/mLCarvacrol (72.0%)[161]
Origanum microphyllum (oregano)S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)Tween 805.32 mg/mLTerpin-4-ol (24.86%), -terpinene (13.83%), linalool (10.81%) [162]
Origanum scabrum (oregano)0.38 mg/mLCarvacrol (74.86%)

Origanum vulgare (oregano)ADMS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228) 1% DMSO0.13% v/vp-Cymene (14.60%), -terpinene (11.70%), thymol (24.70%), carvacrol (14.00%) [163]
ADMS. epidermidis (21 clinical isolates)0.06–0.13% v/v

Piper nigrum (black pepper)ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 80>4.00% v/vNCR[210]

Rosa centifolia (rose)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.03% v/vNCR[209]

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)Tween 800.25% v/v1,8-Cineole (27.23%), -pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%)[169]
S. epidermidis0.10% (v/v)1,8-Cineole (26.54%), -pinene (20.14%), camphene (11.38%), camphor (12.88%)[170]
S. epidermidis (MTCC 435)n.m.11.00 mg/mLNCR[171]
S. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone10.10 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (41.40%), -pinene (13.30%), camphor (12.40%)[140]

Salvia bracteata (sage)MACS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)Tween 2050.00 μg/mLCaryophyllene oxide (16.6%)[173]

Salvia eremophila (sage)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)10% DMSO32.00 μg/mLBorneol (21.83%), -pinene (18.80%), bornyl acetate (18.68%)[174]

Salvia nilotica (sage)ADMS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)n.m.5.50 mg/mLtrans-Caryophyllene (10.90%)[175]

Salvia ringens (sage)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)n.m.NI-Pinene (12.85%), 1,8-cineole (46.42%)[177]

Salvia rosifolia (sage) (3 samples)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)20% DMSO125.00–1000.00 μg/mL-Pinene (15.70–34.80%), 1,8-cineole (16.60–25.10%), -pinene (6.70–13.50%)[178]

Salvia rubifolia (sage)MACS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)Tween 2050.00 μg/mL-Muurolene (11.80%)[173]

Salvia sclarea (clary sage)MICS. epidermidis (19 clinical isolates)Ethanol4.50–6.25Linalyl acetate (57.90%), linalool (12.40%)[179]

Syzygium aromaticum (clove)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)Tween 80 0.25% v/vEugenol (68.52%), -caryophyllene (19.00%), 2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]phenol acetate (10.15%)[169]
ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 80NCR[210]
MICP. acnesn.m.0.31 mg/mLDL-Limonene (61.60%)[216]

Thymus capitatus (thyme)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 12228)Tween 80900.00 μg/mLp-Cymene (26.40%), thymol (29.30%), carvacrol (10.80%) [181]
Thymus capitatus (thyme), commercial-Pinene (25.20%), linalool (10.30%), thymol (46.10%)
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), Gennargentu450.00 μg/mLThymol (46.90%), carvacrol (20.6 0%)
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), Limbara900.00 μg/mLp-Cymene (27.60%), thymol (50.30%)

Thymus quinquecostatus (thyme), JejuMACP. acnes (ATCC 6919)n.m.0.50 mg/mLp-Cymen-3-ol (50.41%), p-cymen-2-ol (24.06%), cymene (19.04%) [207]
P. granulosum (ATCC 25564)

Thymus vulgaris (thyme)MICS. epidermidis (ATCC 2223)Acetone4.70 mg/mLThymol (47.20%), p-cymene (22.10%)[140]
P. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.02% v/vNCR[209]

Zingiber officinale (ginger)MICP. acnes (CMCC 65002)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[209]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger)ADMP. acnes (DMST 4916, 14917, 4918, 21823, 21823, 21824)0.5% polysorbate 80>4.00% v/vNCR[210]

name (common name), part of plant (if applicable).
: microdilution method; MAC: macrodilution method; ADM: agar dilution method; CTA: contact time assay.
Type Culture Collection, Rockville, USA (ATCC); Colección Espanõla de Cultivos Tipo (CECT); collection of microorganisms of the Department of Microbiology (MFBF); culture collection of antibiotics-resistant microbes (CCRM); Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, clinical isolate (OGU); Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina (LM); Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC); Mycology Laboratory (LM); National Center of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM); National Collection of Type Cultures, London, Great Britain (NCTC); Spanish Collection of Type Cultures (STCC).
concentration was not included; n.m.: not mentioned.
: no inhibition.
: no composition results reported.