Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 5

Review Article

Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

Table 5

Essential oil studies showing efficacy against Gram-negative pathogens associated with skin infections.

Essential Species Main Reference

Abies balsamea (fir)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL-Pinene (31.00%), bornyl acetate (14.90%), -3-carene (14.20%)[99]

Abies holophylla (Manchurian fir)MICE. coli (ATCC 10536)DMSO21.8 mg/mLBicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol (28.05%), -3-carene (13.85%), -pinene (11.68%), camphene (10.41%) [111]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)
E. coli (ATCC 33312)
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 10490)21.80 mg/mL

Abies koreana (Korean fir)MICE. coli (ATCC 10536)DMSO21.8 mg/mLBornyl ester (41.79%), camphene (15.31%), -pinene (11.19%) [111]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)
E. coli (ATCC 33312)10.9 mg/mL
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 10490)21.80 mg/mL

Achillea millefolium (yarrow)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Tween 80NIEucalyptol (24.60%), camphor (16.70%), -terpineol (10.20%) [112]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)
Achillea setacea (bristly yarrow)E. coli (ATCC 25922)0.5% Tween 8072.00 mg/mLSabinene (10.80%), eucalyptol (18.50%) [113]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)72.00 mg/mL
Achillea teretifolia (bristly yarrow)E. coli (ATCC 25922)36.00 mg/mLEucalyptol (19.90%), camphor (11.10%), borneol (11.90%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)72.00 mg/mL

Angelica archangelica (angelica) rootMICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL-Phellandrene (18.50%), -pinene (13.70%), -phellandrene (12.60%), -3-carene (12.10%) [99]
Angelica archangelica (angelica) seed-Phellandrene (59.20%)

Aniba rosaeodora (rosewood)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)n.m.0.40 mg/mLNCR[85]

Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), flowersMICE. coli (ATCC 25922)DMSO1.00 mg/mL-Pinene (39.00%), terpinen-4-ol (32.10%) [114]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)0.25 mg/mL

Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), aerial partsMICE. coli (ATCC 25922)DMSO1.00 mg/mL-Pinene (49.40%), terpinen-4-ol (21.80%) [114]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)

Anthemis aciphylla var. discoidea (chamomile), leavesMICE. coli (ATCC 25922)DMSO0.50 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (24.30%) [114]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)

Anthemis nobilis (chamomile)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL2-Methylbutyl-2-methyl propanoic acid (31.50%), limonene (18.30%), 3-methylpentyl-2-butenoic acid (16.70%), isobutyl isobutyrate (10.00%)[99]

Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon) MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLEstragole (82.60%)[99]

Backhousia citriodora (lemon myrtle)ADME. coli (NCTC 8196)Tween 800.03% v/vGeranial (51.40%), neral (40.90%) [115]
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 6750)2.00% v/v

Boswellia carteri (frankincense) (9 samples)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922) Acetone4.00–12.00 mg/mL-Pinene (4.80–40.40%), myrcene (1.60–52.40%), limonene (1.90–20.40%), -thujene (0.30–52.40%), -cymene (2.70–16.90%), -pinene (0.30–13.10%) [116]
Boswellia frereana (frankincense) (3 samples)4.00–6.00 mg/mL-Pinene (2.00–64.70%), -thujene (0.00–33.10%), -cymene (5.40–16.90%)
Boswellia neglecta (frankincense)E. coli (ATCC 8739)Acetone3.00 mg/mLNCR[117]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)6.00 mg/mL-Pinene (43.40%), -pinene (13.10%)[116]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)1.30 mg/mLNCR [117]
Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense)E. coli (ATCC 8739)3.30 mg/mL
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)1.50 mg/mL
Boswellia rivae (frankincense)E. coli (ATCC 8739)3.00 mg/mL
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)1.00 mg/mL
Boswellia sacra (frankincense) (2 samples)E. coli (ATCC 25922)4.00–6.00 mg/mL-Pinene (18.30–28.00%), -thujene (3.90–11.20%), limonene (11.20–13.10%) [116]
Boswellia spp. (frankincense) (4 samples)6.00 mg/mL-Pinene (18.80–24.20%), limonene (11.70–19.00%)
Boswellia thurifera (frankincense)-Pinene (28.00%), limonene (14.60%)

Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone3.00 mg/mLBicyclosesquiphellandrene (19.50%), -farnesene (13.90%) [99]
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang), heads1.50 mg/mLBenzyl acetate (31.90%), linalool (27.00%), methyl benzoate (10.40%)

Canarium luzonicum (elemi)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (41.90%), elemol (21.60%), -phellandrene (11.40%)[99]

Carum carvi (caraway) MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (27.60%), carvone (67.50%)[99]
P. aeruginosaDMSO16.00 μg/mLDL-Limonene (53.35%), -selinene (11.08%), -elemene (10.09%)[118]

Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove)ADM90P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and 15 clinical isolates)Tween 803.00 mg/mLEugenol (75.85%), eugenyl acetate (16.38%) [119]
E. coli (ATCC 25922 and 15 clinical isolates)

Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon)MICP. aeruginosaDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLtrans-Caryophyllene (17.18%), eugenol (14.67%), linalool L (14.52%), trans-cinnamyl acetate, (13.85%), cymol (11.79%), cinnamaldehyde (11.25%)[118]

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon)MACE. coli (ATCC 25922)75% ethanol200.00 mg/LNCR [231]
E. coli (10 clinical strains)400.00 mg/L
ADME. coliDMSO1.25 μL/mLNCR[232]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO1.6 mg/mLCinnamaldehyde (52.42%)[80]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)75% ethanol400.00 mg/LNCR [231]
P. aeruginosa (clinical strain)
ADMP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10% DMSO0.80 mg/mLCinnamaldehyde (52.42%)[80]
MICAcetone1.50 mg/mLEugenol (80.00%)[99]
ADM90P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and 15 clinical isolates)Tween 800.80 mg/mLCinnamaldehyde (86.31%) [119]
E. coli (ATCC 25922 and 15 clinical isolates)0.25 mg/mL

Citrus aurantifolia (lime)ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO6.40 mg/mLNCR [80]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)

Citrus aurantium (bitter orange), flowersMICE. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO1.25 mg/mLLimonene (27.50%), -terpineol (14.00%), -nerolidol (17.50%), -terpinyl acetate (11.7%) [120]
E. coli (ATCC 8739)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)2.50 mg/mL

Citrus aurantium (petitgrain)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (54.90%), linalool (21.10%)[99]

Citrus bergamia (bergamot)MACE. coli (ATCC 8739)n.m.5.0 μL/mLBergamol (16.10%), linalool (14.02%), D-limonene (13.76%)[62]

Citrus grandis (grapefruit)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone1.50 mg/mLLimonene (74.80%)[99]
ADME. coliDMSO2.5 μL/mLNCR[232]

Citrus medica limonum (lemon) ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO6.4 mg/mLNCR [80]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)12.80 mg/mL
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL[99]

Citrus sinensis (orange)ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO12.8 mg/mLNCR[80]
MACE. coli (ATCC 10536)0.1% ethanol1.875 mg/L[121]
ADMP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10% DMSO12.80 mg/mL[80]
MACP. aeruginosa (ATCC 15442)0.1% ethanol1.88 mg/mL[121]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (93.20%)[99]

Commiphora guidotti (myrrh) MICE. coli (ATCC 8739)Acetone4.00 mg/mL( )--Ocimene (52.60%), -santalene (11.10%), ()--bisabolene (16.00%) [117]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)1.40 mg/mL
Commiphora myrrha (myrrh)E. coli (ATCC 8739)1.00 mg/mLFuranogermacrene (15.9%), furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (44.3%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)0.50 mg/mL
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)4.00 mg/mLFuranoeudesma-1,3-diene (57.70%), lindestrene (16.30%)[99]

Coriandrum sativum (coriander), seedMICE. coli (7 clinical isolates)0.5% DMSO with Tween 800.14 mg/mLNCR [122]
Cumin cymene (cumin) (6 samples)0.30 mg/mL

Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10% DMSO6.02–23.60 μg/mL-Pinene (20.00–60.50%), -3-carene (1.00–15.60%), umbellulone (0.80–18.40%) [123]
Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress), branchesE. coli (ATCC 25922)0.37 μg/mL-Pinene (58.60%), -3-carene (15.60%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)11.80 μg/mL
Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress), female conesE. coli (ATCC 25922)2.95 μg/mL-Pinene (60.50%), -3-carene (15.30%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)6.02 μg/mL
Cupressus arizonica (smooth cypress), leavesE. coli (ATCC 25922)0.38 μg/mL-Pinene (20.00%), umbellulone (18.40%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)23.60 μg/mL
Cupressus sempervirens (cypress)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Acetone2.00 mg/mL-Pinene (41.20%), -3-carene (23.70%)[99]

Cymbopogon giganteus (lemongrass) MICE. coli (CIP 105182)0.5% ethanol6.3 mg/mLLimonene (42.00%), trans--mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.20%), cis--mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12.00%) [124]
P. aeruginosa (CRBIP 19.249)70.00 mg/mL

Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)MICE. coli (CIP 105182)0.5% ethanol10 mg/mLGeranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%), myrcene (11.0%)[124]
MACE. coli (clinical isolate VR 12 and MTCC 424)Sodium taurocholate1.66–3.33 μL/mLCitral (72.80%)[125, 126]
P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424 and clinical isolate VR 6)11.60–20.00 μL/mL
MICP. aeruginosa (CRBIP 19.249)0.5% ethanol80.00 mg/mLGeranial (48.10%), neral (34.60%), myrcene (11.00%)[124]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone1.50 mg/mLGeranial (44.80%)[99]
P. aeruginosaDMSO16.00 μg/mLGeranial (47.34%), -myrcene (16.53%), Z-citral (8.36%)[118]

Cymbopogon martinii (palmarosa)MACE. coli (clinical isolate VR 12 and MTCC 424)sodium taurocholate1.66–4.16 μL/mLGeraniol (61.60%)[125, 126]
P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424 and clinical isolate VR 6)8.33–20.00 μL/mL

Cymbopogon nardus (citronella)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)acetone1.50 mg/mLCitronellal (38.30%), geraniol (20.70%), citronellol (18.80%) [99]
Daucus carota (carrot seed)3.00 mg/mLCarotol (44.40%)

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalyptus) ADME. coliDMSO5.00 μL/mLNCR[232]
MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Acetone2.00 mg/mL [130]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)1.00 mg/mL

Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus)ADME. coli (ATCC3428)Tween 2051.36 μg/mLEucalyptol (47.20%), (+)-spathulenol (18.10%)[81]
MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 8010.00 mg/mL 1,8-Cineol (81.93%)[128]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10.00 mg/mL[128]
MACE. coli (clinical isolate and MTCC 424)Sodium taurocholate1.66–3.33 μL/mLCineole (23.20%) [125, 126]
P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424 and clinical isolate VR 6)8.33–20.00 μL/mL
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)DMSO0.10% v/vNCR[129]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone3.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (58.00%), -terpineol (13.20%)[99]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)2.00 mg/mLNCR [130]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)1.00 mg/mL
Eucalyptus radiata (eucalyptus)E. coli (ATCC 25922)Acetone2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (), -terpineol ()[130]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)1.00 mg/mL[130]
Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)E. coli (ATCC 25922)2.00 mg/mLNCR[130]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)1.00 mg/mL[130]
Eucalyptus smithii (eucalyptus)E. coli (ATCC 25922)2.00 mg/mLNCR[130]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)2.00 mg/mL[130]
Eucalyptus dives (eucalyptus)E. coli (ATCC 25922)2.00 mg/mLNCR[130]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)1.00 mg/mL[130]
Eucalyptus intertexta (eucalyptus)E.coli (ATCC 10536)10% DSMO15.6 μg/mLNCR [131]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)NI
Eucalyptus largiflorens (eucalyptus)E.coli (ATCC 10536)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)

Foeniculum dulce (fennel)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone3.00 mg/mL-Anethole (79.10%)[99]

Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) MACE. coli (ATCC 25922)DMSO0.25 mg/mLtrans-Anethole (68.53%), estragole (10.42%) [132]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)10.00 mg/mL
MICP. aeruginosa16.00 μg/mLtrans-Anethole (33.3%), DL-limonene (19.66%), carvone (12.03%)[118]
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) (6 samples)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)1000.00–2000.00 μg/mLFenchone (16.90–34.70%), estragole (2.50–66.00%), trans-anethole (7.90–77.70%) [133]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)62.50–500 μg/mL

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare (fennel), Aurelio MACP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Tween 20100.00 μg/mLLimonene (16.50–21.50%), ()-anethole (59.80–66.00%) [134]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)50.00 μg/mL
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare (fennel), SpartacoE. coli (ATCC 25922)50.00–100.00 μg/mLLimonene (0.20–17.70%), ()-anethole (66.30–90.40%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)≥100.00 μg/mL

Geranium dissectum (geranium)MACP. aeruginosaDMSO16.00 μg/mL-Citronellol (25.45%), geraniol (13.83%)[118]

Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop)MACP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLIsopinocamphone (48.70%), pinocamphone (15.50%)[99]

Jasminum sambac (jasmine)MACE. coli (MTCC 443)Sodium taurocholate31.25 μL/mLLinalool (59.00%), benzyl acetate (22.50%)[233]

Juniperus excelsa (juniper), berries, OhridADME. coli (25927)50% DSMO50.00%Sabinene (58.85%)[87]
Juniperus officinalis (juniper), berryMICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 8020.00 mg/mL-Pinene (39.760%) [128]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)
Juniperus virginiana (juniper)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLThujopsene (29.80%), cedrol (14.90%), -cedrene (12.40%) [99]
Juniperus virginiana (juniper), berries-Pinene (20.50%), myrcene (13.70%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (10.70%)

Kunzea ericoides (Kānuka) MACE. coli (ATCC 11229)Tween 802.00% v/v-pinene (61.60%) [137]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 15442)2.00% v/v
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)Acetone4.00 mg/mL-Pinene (26.20–46.70%), p-cymene (5.80–19.10%)[138]

Laurus nobilis (bay)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.67 mg/mLEugenol (57.20%), myrcene (14.30%), chavicol (12.70%)[99]

Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)MICE. coli (ATCC 8739)10% DSMO730.1 μg/mLLinalool (25.10%), linalyl acetate (22.50%) [139]
E. coli (ampicillin-resistant NCTC 10418)722.2 μg/mL
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 1662)1040.00 μg/mL
E. coli (ATCC 11775)Acetone6.20 mg/mLLinalool (30.80%), linalyl acetate (31.30%) [140]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)8.60 mg/mL
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)2.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (36.70%), linalool (31.40%), terpinen-4-ol (14.90%)[99]
Lavandula dentata (French lavender)E. coli (BNI 2)5% DMSO2.20 mg/mLCamphor (12.40%)[141]
Lavandula officinalis (lavender)P. aeruginosaDMSO16.00 μg/mL-3-Carene (17.14%), -fenchene (16.79%), diethyl phthalate (13.84%)[118]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender)E. coli (STCC 471)Tween 808.00 μL/mL10s,11s-Himachala-3(12),4-diene (23.62%), cubenol (16.19%)[142]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), flowerE. coli (NRRL B-3008)20% DMSO250.00 μg/mL-Fenchone (39.20%) [47]
P. aeruginosa (NRRL B-23)
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), leafE. coli (NRRL B-3008)250.00 μg/mL-Fenchone (41.90%), 1,8-cineole (15.60%), camphor (12.10%)
P. aeruginosa (NRRL B-23)500.00 μg/mL

Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)MACE. coli (ATCC 11229)Tween 802.00% v/v(−)-(E)-Calamenene (14.50%), leptospermone (17.60%) [137]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 15442)0.85% v/v
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)Acetone4.00 mg/mLEudesma-4(14),11-diene (6.20–14.50%), -selinene (5.90–13.50%), ()-methyl cinnamate (9.20–19.50%)[138]

Litsea cubeba (May Chang)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone1.50 mg/mLGeranial (45.60%), nerol (31.20%)[99]
Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile)4.00 mg/mLBisabolene oxide A (46.90%), -farnesene (19.20%)[99]

Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) ADM90P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and 15 clinical isolates)Tween 8054.40 mg/mLChamazulene (31.48%), -bisabolol (15.71%), bisabolol oxide (15.71%) [119]
E. coli (ATCC 25922 and 15 clinical isolates)

Matricaria songarica (chamomile)MICE. coli (CCTCC AB91112) Tween 80100 μg/mL--Farnesene (10.58%), bisabolol oxide A (10.46%) [143]
P. aeruginosa (CCTCC AB93066)200.00 μg/mL

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) MICE. coli (ATCC 10536)Tween 800.12% v/vNCR [147]
E. coli (110 clinical isolates)0.12–0.25% v/v
E. coli (AG100)n.m.0.25% (v/v)Terpinen-4-ol (39.80%), -terpinene (17.80%)[149, 150]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)None used0.25% (v/v)Terpinen-4-ol (40.00%), -terpinen (13.00%), p-cymene (13.00%)[97]
E. coli (ATCC 11775)Acetone3.70 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (38.60%), -terpinene (21.60%)[140]
MACE. coli (ATCC 11229)Tween 800.25% v/v-Terpinene (11.40%), -terpinene (22.50%), terpinen-4-ol (35.20%) [137]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 15442)1.00% v/v
MICP. aeruginosa (NCTC 6749)n.m.8.00% (v/v)Terpinen-4-ol (39.80%), -terpinene (17.80%)[150]
P. aeruginosa (10 clinical isolates)Tween 802.00–5.00% v/vterpinen-4-ol (35.70%)[152]
ADMP. aeruginosa (NCTC 6750)0.5% Tween 202.00% v/v Terpinen-4-ol (42.80%), -terpinene (18.20%)[115]
E. coli (NCTC 8196)0.20% v/v[115]
MICP. aeruginosa (NCIB 8295)n.m.12.50% v/vNCR[145]
MIC90P. aeruginosa (30 clinical isolates)Tween 804.00%Terpinen-4-ol (40.30%), -terpinene (19.70%)[234]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)Acetone8.60 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (38.60%), -terpinene (21.60%)[140]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (49.30%), -terpinene (16.90%)[99]

Melaleuca cajuputi (cajuput)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 805.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (67.60%) [128]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 15442)1.90% v/v1,8-Cineole (55.50%) [137]
E. coli (ATCC 11229)0.40% v/v

Melaleuca quinquenervia (niaouli)MICE. coli (ATCC 11229)Tween 800.40% v/v 1,8-Cineole (61.20%) [137]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 15442)1.90%v/v
Melaleuca viridiflora (niaouli)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (45.90%), -terpinene (21.00%)[99]

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) MICP. aeruginosa (NCTC 1662)10% DSMO1000.30 μg/mLCitronellal (20.50%), -citronellol (11.50%), geraniol (17.00%) [139]
E. coli (ATCC 8739)442.30 μg/mL
E. coli (ampicillin-resistant NCTC 10418)567.40 μg/mL
E. coli (ATCC 25922)n.m.10.00 mg/mLNCR[85]

Mentha piperita (peppermint)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 800.6 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (12.06%), menthone (22.24%), menthol (47.29%)[128]
MACE. coli (clinical isolate and MTCC 424)Sodium taurocholate1.66–2.50 μL/mLMenthol (36.40%)[125, 126]
MICE. coli (ATCC 11775)Acetone5.70 mg/mLMenthone (18.20%), menthol (42.90%)[140]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)DMSO1.25–2.50 mg/mLMenthol (27.50–42.30%), menthone (18.40–27.90%)[155]
n.m.3.20 mg/mLNCR[85]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Tween 8020.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (12.06%), menthone (22.24%), menthol (47.29%)[128]
P. aeruginosaDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLMenthone (40.82%), carvone (24.16%)[118]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)0.10% v/vNCR[129]
MACP. aeruginosa (MTCC 424 and clinical isolate VR 6)Sodium taurocholate10.00–20.00 μL/mLMenthol (36.40%)[125, 126]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)Acetone8.60 mg/mLMenthone (18.20%), menthol (42.90%)[140]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)DMSO2.50–5.00 mg/mLMenthol (27.50–42.30%), menthone (18.40–27.90%)[155]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLMenthol (47.50%), menthone (18.60%)[99]
E. coli (CIP 105182)Ethanol40.0 mg/mL Menthol (39.30%), menthone (25.20%) [156]
P. aeruginosa (CRBIP 19.249)0.5% ethanol80.00 mg/mL

Myrtus communis (myrtle) MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLMyrtenyl acetate (28.20%), 1,8-cineole (25.60%), -pinene (12.50%)[99]
ADME. coli (ATCC 35218)Tween 2011.20 mg/mLNCR[157]

Ocimum basilicum (basil)MICE. coli (CIP 105182)Ethanol8.30 mg/mLLinalool (57.00%), eugenol (19.20%)[156]
MACE. coli (ATCC 8739)n.m.1.25 μL/mLEugenol (62.60%), caryophyllene (21.51%)[62]
ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)96% ethanol8.00 μL/mLEstragole (86.4%) [223]
E. coli (ESBL+) (4 clinical strains from wounds)8.50–9.25 μL/mL
E. coli (ESBL−) (4 clinical strains from wounds)10.00–11.50 μL/mL
MICP. aeruginosa (CRBIP 19.249)0.5% ethanol80.00 mg/mLLinalool (57.00%), eugenol (19.20%)[156]
MACP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)Tween 800.0030% v/vLinalool (54.95%), methyl chavicol (11.98%) [158]
P. aeruginosa (clinical isolate)
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.67 mg/mLLinalool (54.10%)[99]
MIC90E. coli (ATCC 8739)n.m.160.00 μg/mLMethyl chavicol (46.90%), geranial (19.10%), neral (15.15%)[159]
MICE. coli (ATCC 35210) Tween 800.18–5.40 μg/mLLinalool (30.30–58.60%) [160]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)0.11–11.74 μg/mL

Origanum acutidens (Turkey oregano)MICE. coli (A1)10% DMSO62.50 μg/mLCarvacrol (72.00%) [161]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC9027)125.00 μg/mL
P. aeruginosa (ATCC27859)125.00 μg/mL
Origanum majorana (marjoram)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)DMSO0.05% v/vNCR[129]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (46.00%), linalool (26.10%)[99]
Origanum microphyllum (oregano)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 227853)Tween 80NITerpin-4-ol (24.86%), -terpinene (13.83%), linalool (10.81%) [162]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)3.35 mg/mL
Origanum scabrum (oregano)E. coli (ATCC 25922)0.28 mg/mLCarvacrol (74.86%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 227853)1.27 mg/mL

Origanum vulgare (oregano) MACE. coli (ATCC 25922)75% ethanol200.00 mg/LNCR [231]
E. coli (10 clinical isolates)200.00–400.00 mg/L
E. coli (ATCC 8739)n.m.0.63 μL/mLCarvacrol (30.17%), -cymene (15.20%), -terpinen (12.44%)[62]
ADME. coli (ATCC 35218)Tween 200.70 mg/mLNCR[157]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)75% ethanol800.00 mg/L [231]
P. aeruginosa (clinical isolate)400.00 mg/L
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 2730)n.m.1648.00 mg/L[164]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)DMSO0.20% v/v[129]
Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Greek oregano)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO and Tween 80512.00 μg/mLLinalool (96.31%) [165]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)
Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare (oregano)E. coli (ATCC 25922)213.30 μg/mLThymol (58.31%), carvacrol (16.11%), -cymene (13.45%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)256.00 μg/mL

Pelargonium graveolens (geranium)ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO6.40 mg/mLNCR[80]
E. coli (ATCC 35218)Tween 205.60 mg/mL[157]
MICE. coli (clinical strains isolated from wounds)Ethanol3.00–3.75 mL/mLCitronellol (26.70%), geraniol (13.40%)[166]
ADMP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10% DMSO12.80 mg/mLNCR[80]
MICP. aeruginosaEthanol9.25–10.50 mL/mL.Citronellol (26.70%), geraniol (13.40%)[166]

Pelargonium odoratissimum (geranium)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLCitronellol (34.20%), geraniol (15.70%)[99]

Perovskia abrotanoides (Russian sage)MICE. coli (ATCC 8739)10% DMSO8.00 μL/mLCamphor (23.00%), 1,8-cineole (22.00%), -pinene (12.00%) [167]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)

Pimpinella anisum (anise)MICE. coliDMSO500.00 μg/mLNCR [168]
P. aeruginosa
P. aeruginosa16.00 μg/mLAnethole (64.82%)[118]

Pinus sylvestris (pine) MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLBornyl acetate (42.30%), camphene (11.80%), -pinene (11.00%)[99]
Piper nigrum (black pepper)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mL-Caryophyllene (33.80%), limonene (16.40%)[99]

Pogostemon cablin (patchouli)MICE. coli (ampicillin-resistant NCTC 10418)10% DSMO530.2 μg/mL-Guaiene (13.80%), -bulnesene (17.10%), patchouli alcohol (22.70%) [139]
E. coli (ATCC 8739)410.7 μg/mL
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 1662)1200.00 μg/mL
Pogostemon patchouli (patchouli)P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone2.00 mg/mLPatchouli alcohol (37.30%), -bulnesene (14.60%), -guaiene (12.50%)[99]

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)MICE. coli (ATCC 8739)Tween 800.25% v/v1,8-Cineole (27.23%), -pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%)[169]
E. coli (ATCC 8739) 10% DSMO733.70 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (29.20%), (+)-camphor (17.20%) [139]
E. coli (ampicillin-resistant NCTC 10418)810.70 μg/mL
E. coli (ATCC 8739)Tween 800.03% (v/v)1,8-Cineole (26.54%), -pinene (20.14%), camphene (11.38%), camphor (12.88%)[170]
E. coli (MTCC 723)n.m.11.00 mg/mLNCR[171]
E. coli (ATCC 8739)Hexane0.47–3.75 mg/mL-Pinene (8.14–11.47)%, 1,8-cineole (10.56–11.91%), camphor (16.57–16.89%), verbenone (17.43–23.79%), bornyl acetate (9.19–11.62%)[171]
ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO6.40 mg/mL NCR[80]
E. coli (ATCC 35218)Tween 2011.20 mg/mL[157]
MICE. coli (ATCC 11775)Acetone4.50 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (41.40%), -pinene (13.30%), camphor (12.40%)[140]
ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)96% ethanol18.50 μL/mL1,8-Cineole (46.40%), camphor (11.40%), -pinene (11.00%) [223]
E. coli (ESBL+) (4 clinical strains from wounds)18.50–19.25 μL/mL
E. coli (ESBL−) (4 clinical strains from wounds)18.25 μL/mL–20.0 μL/mL
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Tween 801.00%v/v1,8-Cineole (27.23%), -pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%)[169]
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 1662)10% DSMO1113.30 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (29.20%), (+)-camphor (17.20%)[139]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Tween 800.10% v/v1,8-Cineole (26.54%), -pinene (20.14%), camphene (11.38%), camphor (12.88%)[170]
P. aeruginosa (MTCC 741)n.m.11.00 mg/mLNCR[171]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)DMSO0.20% v/v[129]
ADMP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10% DMSO6.40 mg/mLNCR[80]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) Acetone6.20 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (41.40%), -pinene (13.30%), camphor (12.40%)[140]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (48.00%)[99]
ADM90P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and 15 clinical isolates)Tween 8079.91 mg/mLCamphor (27.51%), limonene (21.01%), myrcene (11.19%), -pinene (10.37%) [119]
E. coli (ATCC 25922 and 15 clinical isolates)79.35 mg/mL

Salvia bracteata (sage)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 20>100.00 μg/mLCaryophyllene oxide (16.60%) [173]
MACP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)

Salvia eremophila (sage)MICE. coli (ATCC 10536)10% DMSO500.00 μg/mLBorneol (21.83%), -pinene (18.80%), bornyl acetate (18.68%) [174]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)NI

Salvia nilotica (sage) ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)n.m.NItrans-Caryophyllene (10.90%) [175]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 227853)7.80 mg/mL

Salvia officinalis (sage)ADME. coli (ATCC 35218)Tween 2011.2 mg/mLNCR[157]
MICE. coli (ATCC 8739)10% DSMO475.0 μg/mL1,8-Cineol (27.40%), -thujone (16.30%), -thujone (11.20%), borneol (10.40%) [139]
E. coli (ampicillin-resistant NCTC 10418)548.0 μg/mL
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 1662)1250.30 μg/mL
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)DMSO0.20% v/vNCR[129]
ADMP. aeruginosa (clinical strain)n.m.7.50 mg/mLNCR [176]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)3.75 mg/mL
E. coli (clinical strain)7.50 mg/mL

Salvia ringens (sage)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)n.m.3.25 mg/mL-Pinene (12.85%), 1,8-cineole (46.42%) [177]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 227853)3.75 mg/mL
Salvia rosifolia (sage) (3 samples)E. coli (NRRL B 3008)20% DMSO250–1000 μg/mL-Pinene (15.70–34.80%), 1,8-cineole (16.60–25.10%), -pinene (6.70–13.50%) [178]
P. aeruginosa (NRRL B 23)250.00–500.00 μg/mL
Salvia rubifolia (sage)E. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 20100 μg/mL-Muurolene (11.80%).[173]

Salvia sclarea (clary sage)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone3.50 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (72.90%), linalool (11.90%) [99]
Santalum album (sandalwood)0.50 mg/mL-Santalol (32.10%)
Styrax benzoin (benzoin)3.00 mg/mLCinnamyl alcohol (44.80%), benzene propanol (21.70%)

Syzygium aromaticum (clove) MICE. coli (ATCC 8739)Tween 800.50% v/vEugenol (68.52%), -caryophyllene (19.00%), 2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]phenol acetate (10.15%)[169]
ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)10% DMSO1.6 mg/mLNCR[80]
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Tween 800.13% v/vEugenol (68.52%), -caryophyllene (19.00%), 2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]phenol acetate (10.15%)[169]
ADMP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)10% DMSO1.60 mg/mLNCR[80]
MICP. aeruginosaDMSO16.00 μg/mLEugenol (84.07%), isoeugenol (10.39%)[118]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone1.50 mg/mLEugenol (82.20%), eugenol acetate (13.20%)[99]

Tagetes minuta (Mexican marigold)MIC90E. coli (ATCC 8739)n.m.165.00 μg/mLDihydrotagetone (33.90%), -ocimene (19.90%), tagetone (16.10%)[159]

Tagetes patula (French marigold)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone1.50 mg/mL( )--Ocimene (41.30%), -tagetone (11.20%), verbenone (10.90%)[99]

Thymus capitatus (thyme)MICE. coli (ATCC 25922)Tween 80900.00 μg/mL-Cymene (26.40%), thymol (29.30%), carvacrol (10.80%) [181]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)900.00 μg/mL
Thymus capitatus (thyme), commercialE. coli (ATCC 25922)900.00 μg/mL-Pinene (25.20%), linalool (10.30%), thymol (46.10%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)900.00 μg/mL
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), GennargentuE. coli (ATCC 25922)450 μg/mLThymol (46.90%), carvacrol (20.60%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)900.00 μg/mL
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), LimbaraE. coli (ATCC 25922)450 μg/mL-Cymene (27.60%), thymol (50.30%)
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)900.00 μg/mL

Thymus hyemalis (thymol, thymol/linalool, carvacrol chemotypes) (thyme)MACE. coli (CECT 516)95% ethanol<0.2–2.0 μL/mL-Cymene (16.00–19.80%), linalool (2.10–16.60%), thymol (2.90–43.00%), carvacrol (0.30–40.10%)[61]

Thymus numidicusADMP. aeruginosa (clinical strain)n.m.0.47 mg/mLNCR [176]
E. coli (ATCC 25922)0.12 mg/mL
E. coli (clinical strain)0.23 mg/mL

Thymus schimperi (thyme)ADME. coliDMSO0.63 μL/mLNCR[232]
Thymus serpyllum (thyme)E. coli (ATCC 35218)Tween 200.70 mg/mL[157]

Thymus vulgaris (thyme) MICE. coliDMSO62.50 μg/mLNCR[168]
E. coli (ATCC 8739)10% DSMO430.40 μg/mLp-Cymene (17.90%), thymol (52.40%) [139]
E. coli (ampicillin-resistant NCTC 10418)360.60 μg/mL
E. coli (ATCC 25922)n.m.0.30 mg/mLNCR[85]
ADME. coli (ATCC 25922)Ethanol0.25 μL/mLThymol (38.10%), -cymene (29.10%) [182]
E. coli (2 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from groin)0.25–0.50 μL/mL
E. coli (7 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from wounds)
E. coli (multidrug-resistant clinical strain from abdominal cavity)0.50 μL/mL
E. coli (2 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from ulcers)0.25–0.50 μL/mL
E. coli (5 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from bedsores)
MICE. coli (ATCC 11775)Acetone0.50 mg/mLThymol (47.20%), -cymene (22.10%)[140]
ADME. coli (ATCC3428)Tween 209.25 μg/mLThymol (48.10%), -cymene (15.60%), -terpinene (15.40%)[81]
MICP. aeruginosaDMSO500.00 μg/mLNCR[168]
P. aeruginosa (NCTC 1662)10% DSMO1250.30 μg/mL-Cymene (17.90%), thymol (52.40%)[139]
ADMP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)Ethanol0.50 μL/mLThymol (38.10%), -cymene (29.10%) [182]
P. aeruginosa (multidrug-resistant clinical strain from toes)1.50 μL/mL
P. aeruginosa (6 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from wounds)1.50–2.00 μL/mL
P. aeruginosa (6 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from ulcers)2.00–2.50 μL/mL
P. aeruginosa (6 multidrug-resistant clinical strains from bedsores)1.50–2.00 μL/mL
MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027)Acetone8.6. mg/mLThymol (47.20%), -cymene (22.10%)[140]
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)2.00 mg/mL-Cymene (39.90%), thymol (20.70%)[99]

Thymus vulgaris (thyme) (thymol chemotype) MACE. coli (CECT 516) 95% ethanol0.5 μL/mL-Cymene (18.70%), thymol (57.70%) [61]
Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis (thyme) (thymol and two linalool chemotypes)<0.2 μL/mL-Cymene (0.50–11.20%), ()-sabinene hydrate (0.20–18.20%), linalool (2.00–82.30%)

Vetiveria zizanioides/Andropogon muricatus (vetiver)MICP. aeruginosa (ATCC 27858)Acetone1.50 mg/mLZizanol (13.60%), -vetirenene (7.20%)[99]

name (common name), part of plant (if applicable).
: microdilution method; MAC: macrodilution method; ADM: agar dilution method; CTA: contact time assay.
Type Culture Collection, Rockville, USA (ATCC); Colección Espanõla de Cultivos Tipo (CECT); collection of microorganisms of the Department of Microbiology (MFBF); culture collection of antibiotics-resistant microbes (CCRM); Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, clinical isolate (OGU); Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina (LM); Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC); Mycology Laboratory (LM); National Center of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM); National Collection of Type Cultures, London, Great Britain (NCTC); Spanish Collection of Type Cultures (STCC).
concentration was not included; n.m.: not mentioned.
: no inhibition.
: no composition results reported.