Table 2: Data extraction of randomized controlled trials on AA for chronic LBP.

StudiesParticipantsDiagnostic criteria for chronic LBP/syndrome differentiationControl intervention

Lu et al. 2015, China/HenanMiddle-aged and elderly patients with the chronic lumbar muscle strain (), E: 37 (27 M, 10 F), MA: 49.39 ± 5.90 yr, C: 37 (26 M, 11 F), MA: 48.77 ± 6.36 yrYes/NMTai Chi exercise, respectively, in morning and at night, about 45 minutes per time
Suen et al. 2007, China/Hong KongThe elderly suffering from LBP (), E: 30 (2 M, 28 F), MA: 82.13 ± 6.87 yr, C: 30 (30 F), MA: 81.23 ± 6.21 yrYes/NMAA with the seeds of Semen vaccariae
Wang 2015, China/HenanMiddle-aged and elderly patients with the chronic lumbar muscle strain (), E: 29 (22 M, 7 F), MA: 47.4 ± 6.0 yr, C: 29 (21 M, 8 F), MA: 46.6 ± 6.4 yrYes/NMThe walking training of lunge twist, respectively, in morning and at night, about 15 minutes per time
Xia et al. 2011, China/ShenzhenOutpatients with lumbar strain (), E: 30 (13 M, 17 F), MA: 29.25 ± 10.36 yr, C: 30 (11 M, 19 F), MA: 28.52 ± 10.28 yrYes/NMAppling Gu Tong Tie Gao (1-2 plasters/day, 2 weeks in total)
Yeh et al. 2013, USAPatients with chronic low back pain (), E: 10 (2 M, 8 F), MA: 45.4 ± 21.8 yr, C: 9 (2 M, 7 F), MA: 49.8 ± 14.4 yrYes/NMTreated with auricular acupressure where ear points were not correlated with CLBP (mouth, stomach, duodenum, and kidney)
Yeh et al. 2014, USAOlder patients with chronic low back pain (), E: 19 (4 M, 15 F), MA: 70.6 ± 4.67 yr, C: 18 (7 M, 11 F), MA: 76.7 ± 7.00 yrYes/NMTreated with auricular acupressure where ear points were not correlated with CLBP (mouth, stomach, duodenum, and eye)
Yeh et al. 2015, USAPatients with chronic low back pain (), E: 30 (10 M, 20 F), MA: 60.97 ± 17.44 yr, C: 31 (10 M, 21 F), MA: 65.61 ± 16.04 yrYes/NMTreated with auricular acupressure where ear points were not correlated with CLBP (mouth, stomach, duodenum, internal ear, and tonsil)

AA, auricular acupressure; LBP, low back pain; E, experimental group; C, control group; M, male; F, female; MA, mean age; yr, year; NM, not mentioned.