Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6438013, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6438013
Research Article

Compounds from Cynomorium songaricum with Estrogenic and Androgenic Activities Suppress the Oestrogen/Androgen-Induced BPH Process

1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshanxi Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300193, China
2Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshanxi Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300193, China
3Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Lin Miao; nc.ude.mctujt@nilmmm and Xiumei Gao; nc.ude.mctujt@iemuixoag

Received 2 February 2017; Accepted 9 April 2017; Published 15 May 2017

Academic Editor: Pradeep Kumar

Copyright © 2017 Xueni Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H.-P. Liu, R.-F. Chang, Y.-S. Wu, W.-Y. Lin, and F.-J. Tsai, “The Yang-tonifying herbal medicine cynomorium songaricum extends lifespan and delays aging in drosophila,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 735481, pp. 1–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. M. Yang, H. Y. Kim, S. Y. Park, H.-M. Kim, M. S. Chang, and S. K. Park, “Cynomorium songaricum induces spermatogenesis with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhancement in rat testes,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 693–696, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. S. Lee, H. A. Oh, and J. Y. Kwon et al., “The effects of cynomorium songaricum on the reproductive activity in male golden hamsters,” Development and Reproduction, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. Ma, N. Nakamura, H. Miyashiro, M. Hattori, and K. Shimotohno, “Inhibitory effects of constituents from Cynomorium songaricum and related triterpene derivatives on HIV-1 protease,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 141–145, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Jin, Eerdunbayaer, and A. Doi et al., “Polyphenolic constituents of cynomorium songaricum rupr. and antibacterial effect of polymeric proanthocyanidin on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 29, pp. 7297–7305, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. B. Dull, A. A. George, E. I. Goncharova et al., “Identification of compounds by high-content screening that induce cytoplasmic to nuclear localization of a fluorescent estrogen receptor α chimera and exhibit agonist or antagonist activity in vitro,” Journal of Biomolecular Screening, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 242–252, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Xin, H. Wang, J. Yang et al., “Phytoestrogens from Psoralea corylifolia reveal estrogen receptor-subtype selectivity,” Phytomedicine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Y. Maximov, T. M. Lee, and V. Craig Jordan, “The discovery and development of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for clinical practice,” Current Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 135–155, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. J. Edouard, L. Miao, G.-W. Fan et al., “Yang-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal plants and their potential phytoandrogenic activity,” Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 321–334, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J.-J. Chen and H.-C. Chang, “By modulating androgen receptor coactivators, daidzein may act as a phytoandrogen,” Prostate, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 457–462, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Y. Tian, X. F. Yuan, and L. Jin et al., “A bufadienolide derived androgen receptor antagonist with inhibitory activities against prostate cancer cells,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 207, no. 3, pp. 16–22, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. W. Hessenkemper, J. Roediger, S. Bartsch et al., “A natural androgen receptor antagonist induces cellular senescence in prostate cancer cells,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1831–1840, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Xu, T.-H. Lin, S. Li et al., “Cryptotanshinone suppresses androgen receptor-mediated growth in androgen dependent and castration resistant prostate cancer cells,” Cancer Letters, vol. 316, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Roell and A. Baniahmad, “The natural compounds atraric acid and N-butylbenzene-sulfonamide as antagonists of the human androgen receptor and inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 332, no. 1-2, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Y. Jang, E. H. Jang, S. Y. Jeong, and J. Kim, “Shikonin inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells via modulation of the androgen receptor,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1455–1460, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. N. Brooke, S. C. Gamble, and M. A. Hough et al., “Antiandrogens act as selective androgen receptor modulators at the proteome level in prostate cancer cells,” Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1201–1216, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. L. Eaton, “Aetiology and pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. K. M. Ho and F. K. Habib, “Estrogen and androgen signaling in the pathogenesis of BPH,” Nature Reviews Urology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Gail, L. H. Prins, L. Birch, and P. Yongbing, “The role of estrogens in normal and abnormal development of the prostate glan,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1089, pp. 1–13, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  20. K.-P. Lai, C.-K. Huang, L.-Y. Fang et al., “Targeting stromal androgen receptor suppresses prolactin-driven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1617–1631, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z. Zhang, L. Duan, X. Du et al., “The proliferative effect of estradiol on human prostate stromal cells is mediated through activation of ERK,” Prostate, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 508–516, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Shao, J. Shi, H. Liu et al., “Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and estrogen receptor α mediated epithelial dedifferentiation mark the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Prostate, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 970–982, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Lu, W.-J. Lin, K. Izumi et al., “Targeting androgen receptor to suppress macrophage-induced EMT and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1707–1715, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. J. McPherson, S. J. Ellem, V. Patchev, K. H. Fritzemeier, and G. P. Risbridger, “The role of Erα and ERβ in the prostate: insights from genetic models and isoform-selective ligands,” Ernst Schering Foundation Symposium Proceedings, vol. 1, pp. 131–148, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. R. Tao, L. Miao, X. N. Wang, and N. Wichai, “Research progress of effects of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. on the benignprostatic hyperplasia treatment,” The Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1150–1152, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  26. Q.-H. Zhang, W.-B. Wang, J. Li et al., “Simultaneous determination of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate in rat plasma by LC-ESI-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of Cynomorium songaricum extract,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 880, no. 1, pp. 168–171, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Q.-G. Gao, H.-Y. Chan, C. W.-Y. Man, and M.-S. Wong, “Differential ERα-mediated rapid estrogenic actions of ginsenoside Rg1 and estren in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 141, pp. 104–112, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Li, B. Cao, X. Liu et al., “Berberine suppresses androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1346–1356, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Titus, J.-A. Tan, C. W. Gregory et al., “14-3-3η amplifies androgen receptor actions in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 7571–7581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Zhou, X.-Q. Xiao, L.-F. Chen et al., “Proliferation and phenotypic changes of stromal cells in response to varying estrogen/androgen levels in castrated rats,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 451–459, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. Xiao, Q. Yuan, Y. Wang et al., “Establishment of rats prostatic stromal hyperplasia model,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 91–95, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  32. H. B. Patisaul and W. Jefferson, “The pros and cons of phytoestrogens,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 400–419, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J.-M. Zhang, J. Li, E.-W. Liu et al., “Danshen enhanced the estrogenic effects of Qing E formula in ovariectomized rats,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, article 181, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Shi, X. Zhu, J. Wang, and D. Long, “Tanshinone IIA promotes non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein in platelets via estrogen receptor signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt,” Biomedical Reports, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 500–504, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. R. J. Miksicek, “Commonly occurring plant flavonoids have estrogenic activity,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. Y. C. Ong and B. K. H. Tan, “Novel phytoandrogens and lipidic augmenters from Eucommia ulmoides,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, article 3, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Caturla, E. Vera-Samper, J. Villalain, C. R. Mateo, and V. Micol, “The relationship between the antioxidant and the antibacterial properties of galloylated catechins and the structure of phospholipid model membranes,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 648–662, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Kürbitz, D. Heise, T. Redmer et al., “Epicatechin gallate and catechin gallate are superior to epigallocatechin gallate in growth suppression and anti-inflammatory activities in pancreatic tumor cells,” Cancer Science, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 728–734, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. J. Baek, J. S. Kim, F. R. Jackson, T. E. Eling, M. F. McEntee, and S. H. Lee, “Epicatechin gallate-induced expression of NAG-1 is associated with growth inhibition and apoptosis in colon cancer cells,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2425–2432, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Shah, P. D. Stapleton, and P. W. Taylor, “The polyphenol (-)-epicatechin gallate disrupts the secretion of virulence-related proteins by Staphylococcus aureus,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 181–185, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. S. Stevens, H. Rosado, R. J. Harvey, and P. W. Taylor, “Epicatechin gallate, a naturally occurring polyphenol, alters the course of infection with β-lactam-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the zebrafish embryo,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 6, Article ID 01043, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. M. Nicholson and W. A. Ricke, “Androgens and estrogens in benign prostatic hyperplasia: Past, present and future,” Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity, vol. 82, no. 4-5, pp. 184–199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Wang, X. Du, and R. Yang et al., “The prevention and treatment effects of tanshinone IIA on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 145, pp. 28–37, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Wang, F. Luo, Y. Zhou et al., “The therapeutic effects of Docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 345, no. 2, pp. 125–133, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. F.-L. Chiu and J.-K. Lin, “Downregulation of androgen receptor expression by luteolin causes inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and xenografts,” Prostate, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 61–71, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. S. Shin, M. Y. Lee, D. Y. Jung, C. S. Seo, H. K. Ha, and H. K. Shin, “Ursolic acid reduces prostate size and dihydrotestosterone level in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 3-4, pp. 884–888, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. J. Ellem and G. P. Risbridger, “The dual, opposing roles of estrogen in the prostate,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1155, pp. 174–186, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Wen, H.-C. Chang, J. Tian, Z. Shang, Y. Niu, and C. Chang, “Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 293–301, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Stanbrough, I. Leav, P. W. L. Kwan, G. J. Bubley, and S. P. Balk, “Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice expressing an androgen receptor transgene in prostate epithelium,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 19, pp. 10823–10828, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. J. McPherson, S. J. Ellem, E. R. Simpson, V. Patchev, K.-H. Fritzemeier, and G. P. Risbridger, “Essential role for estrogen receptor beta in stromal-epithelial regulation of prostatic hyperplasia,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 566–574, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. L. Clarke and S. Khosla, “New selective estrogen and androgen receptor modulators,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 374–379, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Martinkovich, D. Shah, S. L. Planey, and J. A. Arnott, “Selective estrogen receptor modulators: Tissue specificity and clinical utility,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 9, pp. 1437–1452, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. T. Atawia, M. G. Tadros, A. E. Khalifa, H. A. Mosli, and A. B. Abdel-Naim, “Role of the phytoestrogenic, pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of silymarin in inhibiting experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 219, no. 2, pp. 160–169, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Gupta, F. Afaq, and H. Mukhtar, “Involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B, Bax and Bcl-2 in induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by apigenin in human prostate carcinoma cells,” Oncogene, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 3727–3738, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. Ren, S. Zhang, S. H. Mitchell, R. Butler, and C. Y. F. Young, “Tea polyphenols down-regulate the expression of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells,” Oncogene, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 1924–1932, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus