Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers

Table 3

Clinical measures.
(a) Smoking behavior

GroupOverall model
MOREControlt ()p

Cigarette reduction66% (10%)5% (13)3.7 (2.06)0.003

CO (ppm)F/t ()p

Group × time1.71 (.791)0.22
Main effect of time0.77 (.531)0.45
MORE27.3 (6.7)22.6 (7.5)2.28 (.253)0.06
CG24.3 (7.2)25.8 (8.1)0.34 (.055)0.75

(b) Self-reported affect

GroupOverall model
MOREControlF ()p

PANAS PpsitiveGroup × time11.1 (2.02)0.007
 Exp 30.0 (2.5)30.5 (3.0)
 Exp 35.0 (2.7)24.8 (3.3)
PANAS negative0.07 (.16)0.79
 Exp 15.4 (1.9)13.2 (2.1)
 Exp 14.4 (1.4)11.5 (1.5)

(c) State craving on fMRI visit

GroupOverall model
MOREControlFp

CravingGroup × time0.07 (.16)0.8
2.7 (.7)1.3 (.8)
2.4 (.7).83 (.7)
Urge to smokeGroup × time1.8 (.811)0.2
2.7 (.7)2.5 (.75)
2.3 (.7)3.0 (.8)