Table 1: Southeast Asian medicinal plants screened for anti-TB.

Scientific name FamilyLocal namePart used: extract/active compoundActivityTraditional uses (references)

Abrus precatorius L.LeguminosaeAkar saga Not statedThe extract exhibited at 500 µg/ml concentration of 90.0% and inhibition against both H37Rv and MDR strain in LRP assay [47].Bronchitis, cough, TB [18].
Aerial part: dichloromethane/Abruquinone B (1) was isolated from the extractCompound 1 obtained showed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with MIC of 12.5 µg/ml [48].

Abutilon indicum (L.) SweetMalvaceaeGiling-gilinganLeaves: dichloromethane and methanol/β-amyrin 3-palmitate (1), squalene (2), β-sitosterol (3), and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from the extractAll the isolated compounds (1, 2 and a 1 : 1 mixture of 3 and 4) showed inhibition at MIC of >128 µg/ml [49].Cough and leprosy [49].

Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl.AcanthaceaeNguag-plaa-moaLeaves, stem: chloroform methanol waterAll the chloroform, methanol, water extract of leaves and stem showed activity against H37Ra strain in MABA at MIC of 1000 µg/ml [50].Asthma, cough [51, 52].

Aegle marmelos (L.) CorreaRutaceaeMak toum 90% ethanolThe extract was active against H37Rv at MIC 54.88 µg/ml [53].Cough, respiratory infection, intermittent fever [5355].
Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanolThe activity against H37Rv strain in MABA was observed at the MIC of 47.8 to >100 µg/ml from 90% ethanolic extract [56].

Ageratum conyzoides L.AsteraceaeBabadatonWhole plant: 80% methanolMethanolic extract of whole plant exhibited inhibition against H37Rv at the MIC 1600 µg/ml in TEMA [57].Asthma, pneumonia, fever [58, 59].

Aglaia erythrosperma PannellMeliaceaeFruits and leaves: 95%/cabraleadiol (1), cabraleahydroxylactone (2), ethyl eichlerianoate (3), eichlerialactone (4), aglinin A (5), cabralealactone (6), aglaialactone (7), flavagline (8) were isolated from the extractCompounds 3, 4,7 showed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC of 25 µg/ml which is better than compounds 1, 2, 6,8 with the MIC value of 50 µg/ml, while compound 5 showed weaker activity (MIC, >200 µg/ml) [60].Nil.

Allium odorum L.LiliaceaeKucaiLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract was active against H37Rv strain at MIC 1600 µg/ml [57].Asthma, cough [61].

Aloe vera L.AloaceaeLidah buayaLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract showed activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Asthma, bronchitis [62].

Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw.ZingiberaceaeKhaa, Lengkuas,Rhizome: chloroform methanol water
Compound 1′acetoxychavicol acetate (1) was isolated from chloroform extract of rhizome 
The crude chloroform, methanol, water extract of the rhizomes exhibited activity against H37Ra strain at MIC of 0.12, 1000, and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. The MIC value for the isolated compound (1) was 0.024 µg/ml [50].TB, bronchitis, pain in chest, whooping cough, asthma, sore throat [6366].
 Leaves: 80% methanolThe extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain at the MIC 1600 µg/ml [57].

Alpinia purpurata K. Schum.ZingiberaceaeLuyang pulaLeave: methanol/compounds β-sitosteryl-β-D-galactoside (1), β-sitosteryl-3-O-6′-palmityl-β-D-glucoside (2), kumatakenin (3) were isolated from the extractAt 100 µg/ml, the methanolic extract of leaves showed 90% inhibition against H37Rv.
All isolated compounds 1, 2, 3 showed MIC > 128 µg/ml [67].
Cough [68].

Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm.ZingiberaceaeRhizomes: methanolAt 100 µg/ml, the methanolic extract of rhizomes showed 80% inhibition against H37Rv [67].Common cold [68].

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. BrownApocynaceaeDitaLeaves: methanol/19,20E-vallesamine (1), a mixture of angustilobine B N4-oxide (2), N4-methyl angustilobine B (3), 20S-tubotaiwine (4), 6,7-seco-angustilobine B (5), (+)-manilamine (6) were obtained from the extractOnly 4 exhibited activity at MIC of 100 µg/ml, against, while all other compounds like 1, 2, 3, 5,6 showed activity with >128 µg/ml [69].Fever [69].

Amaranthus tricolor L.AmaranthaceaeBayamWhole plant: 80% methanolMethanolic extract of whole plant exhibited inhibition against H37Rv strain at the MIC 1600 µg/ml in TEMA [57].Cough [70].

Andrographis paniculata NeesAcanthaceaeHempedu BumiHerbs: aqueousAt 5 mg/ml the extract exhibited 100.0% inhibition against H37Rv and 93.7% against MDR strain [71].Leprosy, sore throat [72].

Angiopteris evecta (J. R. Forst.) Hoffm.MarattiaceaePaku gajahLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 400 µg/ml [57].Cough, fever [73].

Anisochilus harmandii Doan ex Suddee & A. J. PatonLamiaceaeChroomuayAerial part: hexane and EtOAc/pimaric acid (1), 9α-13α-epidioxyabiet-8(14)-en-18-oic acid (2), 15-hydrooxydehydroabietic acid (3) were isolated from the extract1, 2, 3 all showed anti-TB activity at MIC, 50 µg/ml [74].Nil.

Annona muricata L.AnnonaceaeSirsakLeaves: aqueousThe extract at concentration of 5 mg/ml showed 82.1% inhibition against H37Rv and 50.0% against MDR strain [71].Asthma, cough [75, 76].

Annona reticulata L.AnnonaceaeKantaloht (peurak)90% ethanolThe crude extract exhibited activity at the MIC of 49.17 µg/ml against H37Rv [53].Cough, high fever [53, 77].

Anomianthus dulcis (Dunal) J. SinclairAnnonaceaeNum WuaStem bark: 80% ethanol, dichloromethane and water/(2S)-5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (1), 9-methoxyliriodenine (4), Liriodenine (5) were isolated from the extractCompounds (5), (1), (4) demonstrated anti-TB activity against H37Ra using MABA with the MIC values of 100, 200, 200 µg/ml, respectively [78].Fever [78].

Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.MoraceaeMa-HaadRoots: dichloromethane/Lakoochins A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the extractCompound 1 and 2 showed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MICs of 12.5 and 50 µg/ml, respectively [79].Sore throat [80].

Artocarpus rigidus subsp. RigidusMoraceaeTampangRoot bark: flavonoid 7-demethylartonol E (1), chromone artorigidusin (2), xanthone artonol B (3), flavonoid artonin F (4), flavonoid cycloartobiloxanthone (5), xanthone artoindonesianin C (6), all isolated from n-hexane, chloroform, methanol extractsAll the isolated compounds showed activity again H37Ra in MABA with compound 4 being the most active compound (MIC 6.25 µg/ml). This was followed by compounds 2 and 6 (MIC 12.5 µg/ml) and compounds 5, 1,3 with the MIC of 25, 50, 100 µg/ml, respectively [81].Asthma, cough [82].

Averrhoa bilimbi L.OxalidaceaeBelimbing masamFruits, leaves: 80% methanolThe methanol extracts of both fruit and leaves exhibited inhibition against H37Rv at the MIC 1600 µg/ml in TEMA [57].Whooping cough and fever [83].

Barleria lupulina Lindl.AcanthaceaeSa-let-pangpon
Leaves: chloroform methanol waterChloroform, methanol, water extract of leaves all exhibited activity against H37Ra strain at the MIC of 1000 µg/ml.Cough, fever [84, 85].
 Stem: chloroform methanol water Chloroform extract of stem exhibited inhibition at MIC of 500 µg/ml against H37Ra strain while methanol and water extract showed activities at 1000 µg/ml [50].

Blumea balsamifera DC.AsteraceaeSembung utanNot statedAt 500 µg/ml, the extract exhibited 96.0 and 82.0% inhibition against H37Rv and MDR, respectively, in LRP assay [47].Cough [86].

Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr.ZingiberaceaeKrachaiRhizome: chloroform methanol waterBoth methanol and water extracts of rhizome exhibited inhibitory activity in MABA against H37Ra strain at the MIC of 62.5 µg/ml, while chloroform extract showed activity at 1000 µg/ml MIC [50].Cough [87].

Camchaya calcarea KitamuraAsteraceaeWhole plant: dichloromethane/goyazensolides (1), lychnophorolides A (2), centratherin or lychnophorolides B (3), isogoyazensolides (4), isocentratherin (5), 5-epi- isogoyazensolides (7), 5-epi-isocentratherin (8), 1(10),E,4Z,11(13)-germacratriene-12,6-olide-15-oic acid (9), caffeic acid methyl ester (10) were isolated from the extractCompound 4 was the most active against H37Ra strain with MIC value of 1.5 µg/ml, followed by compounds 1, 2, 5, 7,8 with the same MIC value of 3.1 µg/ml. Compounds 3, 9,10 showed less activities with the MIC values of 6.2, 50, and 25 µg/ml, respectively [88].Nil.

Capsicum annum L.SolanaceaeCiliFruit: 80% methanolThe extract showed activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Cough, anorexia, asthma, sore throat [89].

Casearia grewiifolia Vent.FlacourtiaceaeKruai paStem bark: hexane and dichloromethane/bioactive compounds, Caseargrewiin A (1), Caseargrewiin B (2), Caseargrewiin C (3), Caseargrewiin D (4), rel-(2S,5R,6R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-18,19-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6-methoxy-2-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16),14-triene (5) and rel-(2S,5R,6R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-18,19-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6-hydroxy-2-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16),14-triene (6) were isolated from the extract1, 2, 4, 5,6 all exhibited good anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with MICs of 12.5 µg/ml while 3 showed moderate activity with MIC of 25 µg/ml [90].Fever [90].

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. DonApocynaceaeKemunting cinaLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract was active against H37Rv at MIC 1600 µg/ml [57].Asthma, TB [91].

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.BombacaceaeKabuFruit: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Bronchitis, fever [92].

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.ApiaceaePegaga Whole plant: 80% methanolThe extract showed activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].TB, leprosy, asthma [93].
Herbs: aqueous78.5 and 50.0% inhibition were observed at 5 mg/ml concentration against H37Rv and MDR, respectively [71].

Chisocheton penduliflorus Planch. ex HiernMeliaceaeWood and leaves: 95% methanol/cabraleadiol (1), allo-aromadendrane-10β, 14-diol (2), allo-aromadendrane-10α, 14-diol (3) eichlerialactone (4), cabraleahydroxylactone (5), cabralealactone (6), allo-aromadendrane-10β,13,14-triol (7) were isolated from the extractCompound 4 showed good anti-TB activity against H37Ra with the MIC value of 25 µg/ml, better than 1, 2, 5, 6,7 with the MICs of 50 µg/ml, while compound 3 showed weaker activity (MIC, 100 µg/ml) [94].Nil.

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob.AsteraceaeAgonoiFlowers: isosakuranetin (1), 4′-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavanone (2), acacetin (3), luteolin (4), all isolated from chloroform extractThe compounds isolated exhibited activities against H37Ra at different MIC values (µg/ml) 174.8 (1), 606.0 (2), 704.2 (3), 699.3 (4) [95].Cough [96].

Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) SwingleRutaceaeLimau nipisNot statedIn LRP assay, extract at 500 µg/ml showed 98.0% inhibition against H37Rv strain and 36.0% against MDR strain [47].Sore throats, bronchitis, asthma [97, 98].

Citrus microcarpa BungeRutaceaeLimau kasturiLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml in TEMA [57].Cough [99].

Clausena excavate Burm. f.RutaceaeSun SoakDentatin (1), nordentatin (2), clausenidin (3), O-methylated clausenidin (4), 3-formylcarbazole (5), mukonal (6), 3-methoxycarbonylcarbazole (7), 2-hydroxy-formyl-7-methoxycarbazole (8), clauszoline (9); compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 8,9 where isolated from the chloroform extract of rhizomes; compound 3 was isolated from crude hexane extract of rhizome. Methylation of compound 3 gave rise to compound 4; compound 10 was isolated from crude chloroform extract of the rootCompounds 1, 4,7, isolated, were more active against H37Ra with MIC of 50 µg/ml; this is followed by 2, 5, 8,9 with MIC of 100 µg/ml, while compounds 3 and 6 are with MIC of 200 µg/ml [100].TB [101].

Clausena guillauminii TanakaRutaceaeRoots: acetone/fluroclausine A (1) and heptazoline (2) were obtained from the extractUsing the green fluorescent protein microplate assay (GFPMA), both 1 and 2 exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the same IC50 value of 25 µg/ml [102].Cough [103].

Clausena harmandiana (Pierre) GuillauminRutaceaeSong FaFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolMICs of 83.1 to >100 µg/ml were observed when 90% ethanolic extract of fruits and flowers was tested against H37Rv in MABA [56].Cough [103].

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) KuntzeVerbenaceaeBunga pagodaFlowers: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Cough, asthma [104].

Clitoria ternatea L.LeguminosaeBunga kelentikWhole plant: 80% methanolAt MIC = 1600 µg/ml, the extract showed anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain [57].Asthma, leprosy, TB [105].

Coccinia grandis (L.) VoigtCucurbitaceaePhak tamluengLeaves: chloroform methanol waterIn MABA, chloroform, methanol, water extract of leaves all exhibited activity against H37Ra strain at the MIC of 1000 µg/ml [50].Asthma, cough, bronchitis [106, 107].

Coleus atropurpureus L. BenthLamiaceaePiladangCompound 2′,5′-dimethyl benzopelargonolactone was isolated from the chloroform fraction of leafThe isolate was active against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 200 µg/ml [108].Bronchitis, TB [108].

Colocasia esculenta (L.) SchottColocasieaeKeladi cinaLeaf: 80% methanolThe methanol extract of leaves showed activity against H37Rv strain with the MIC value 1600 µg/ml [57].Asthma, coughing with sputum [109].

Combretum griffithii Van Heurck & Müll. Arg.CombretaceaeKhamin khrueaStem: methanol/1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane (1) were isolated from the extract1 exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC of 3.13 µg/mL [110].Coughing, leprosy [111].

Cordia globifera W. W. SmithBoraginaceaeSak HinRoot: dichloromethane/Globiferin (1), cordiachrome B (2), cordiachrome C (3), cordiaquinol C (4), alliodorin (5), elaeagin (6), cordiachromene (7) were isolated from the extractCompounds 1, 2,3 displayed good activity (MIC, 6.2, 12.5, 1.5 µg/ml resp.) using MABA against H37Ra, followed by 5, 6,7 (MIC, 12.5 µg/ml) and then 4 with MIC of 25 µg/ml [112].Cough [113].

Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm.CostaceaeSetawar haliaStem and flowers: 80% methanolThe methanol extract of Stem and flowers exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain with the MIC value 800 µg/ml [57].Asthma, bronchitis [114].

Croton kongensis Gagnep.EuphorbiaceaePlao Ngeon, Kh sâm bắc bộLeaves: crude dichloromethane extract.
ent-8,9-seco-7α,11β-diacetoxykaura-8(14),16-dien-9,15-dione (1), ent-8,9-seco-8,14-epoxy-7α-hydroxy-11β-acetoxy-16-kauren-9,15-dione (2), ent-8,9-seco-7α-hydroxy-11β-acetoxykaura-8(14),16-dien-9,15-dione (3), all were isolated from dichloromethane extract of leaves
 Dichloromethane crude extract exhibited activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC value 12.5 µg/ml in MABA. The isolated compounds 2 and 3 showed better activity with the MIC value 6.25 µg/ml than compound 1 with 25.0 µg/ml MIC [115].Leprosy, weight loss [116].
Whole plants, leaves: ethanol, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, n-Hexane/ent-1β,7α,14β-triacetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (1), ent-7α,18-dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (2), ent-16(S)-18-acetoxy-7α- hydroxykaur-15-one (3), ent-18-acetoxy-7α-hydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (4), ent-1β,14β-diacetoxy-7α-hydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (5), ent-1β-acetoxy-7α,14β-dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (6), ent-7α,14β-dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (7) were all isolated from ethanol, ethyl acetate, methylene extract of whole plants and leavesThe activities against H37Ra strain were observed at the MIC of 25–50, >50, 6.25–12.5, 12.5–25 µg/ml from ethanol, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, n-Hexane crude extracts of whole plants and leave using microtiter resazurin assay. Isolated compound 1 exhibited the highest activity with MIC values of 0.78, 1.56, 3.12–12.5 µg/ml against H37Ra, H37Rv, other resistant strains of M. tb screened. Both compounds 2 and 3 exhibited MIC at 1.56 µg/ml. Compounds 4, 5, 6,7 on the other hand showed MIC value 3.12–6.25 against H37Ra and H37Rv and other resistant strains of M. tb [117].

Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.ZingiberaceaeWaan mahaamekRhizomes: water/essential oilUsing GFPMA, essential oil showed weaker anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with 2500 µg/ml MIC value [118].Dyspepsia [118].

Dalbergia parviflora Roxb.LeguminosaeSak KeeStem: hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol/Flavanone (1), dalparvone (2), dalparvinene (6) were isolated from the extractUsing GFPMA, compound 1 exhibited good anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, while compounds 2 and 6 showed activity with the MICs of 50 µg/ml [119].Expectorant [119].

Dasymaschalon dasymaschalum (Blume) I. M. TurnerAnnonaceaeBuu ngongLeaves: ethyl acetate/3β-hydroxy-21-O-acetyl-24-methylenecycloartane (1) was obtained from the extractCompound 1 displayed activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC value of 50 µg/ml [120].Nil.

Dendrolobium lanceolatum (Dunn) Schindl.LeguminosaeKraduk-KhiatRoot: hexane and dichloromethane/Flavanones 1 (1), flavanones (2), flavan (3), dibenzocycloheptene derivative (4), 4′-hydroxy-7,8-(2′′,2′′-dimethylpyran)flavan (5) isolated from the extract.Compound 1 exhibited highest activity against H37Ra strain with MIC of 6.3 µg/ml, followed by 2 (MIC, 12.5 µg/ml) and then 3 and 5 with MICs of 25 µg/ml [121].Nil.

Derris indica LLeguminosaeRoot and stem: dichloromethane extract/3-methoxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-diacetoxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(7,8:5′′,6′′)-flavone (1), 2′-methoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyfurano [7,8:4′′,5′′-flavone (2), 8,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-γ,γ-dimethylally-lisoflavone (3), 3,4-methylenedioxy-10-methoxy-7-oxo2]benzopyrano4,3-b]benzopyran (4), desmethoxy kanugin (5), karanjin (6), lacheolatin B (7), pongachromene (8), 3,7-dimethoxyflavone (9), pachycarin D (10), maackiain (11), medicarpin (12) karanjachromene (13), pinnatin (14) isolated from this extract4, 13,14 (6.25, 12.5, 12.5 µg/ml, resp.) showed stronger activity compared to 1, 5, 7, 9, 10 (25, 50, 50, 50, 50 µg/ml resp.) that showed moderate activity, with 3, 8, 10,12 (100, 100, 200, 100 µg/ml resp.) showing weaker activity against H37Ra strain using MABA [122].Bronchitis and whooping cough [23].

Diospyros decandra Lour.EbenaceaeChanBetulinic acid (1) and 2-oxo-3β,19α-dihydroxy-24-nor-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (2)1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with MIC of 25 and 200 µg/ml, respectively [123].Fever [123].

Diospyros ehretioides Wall. ex G. DonEbenaceaeNom nguaFruits: dichloromethane/palmarumycins JC1 (1), palmarumycins JC2 (2), isodiospyrin (3), isodiospyrol A (4) were isolated from the extractCompound 2 exhibited good (MIC = 6.25 µg/ml) anti-TB activity against H37Ra, followed by compound 4 (MIC = 50 µg/ml). Compounds 1 and 3 showed weak activity (MICs ≥ 200 µg/ml) [124].Nil.

Diospyros glandulosa LaceEbenaceaeKluai ruesiDiospyrin, isolated from dichloromethane extract of woodDiospyrin isolated showed activity against H37Ra in MABA with the MIC of 6.25 µg/ml [125].Nil.

Diospyros rhodocalyx KurzEbenaceaeTako NaBetulinaldehyde, obtained from dichloromethane extract of woodBetulinaldehyde exhibited inhibitory activity in microbroth dilution assay against H37Ra with the MIC of 25 µg/ml [125].Nil.

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.AsteraceaeKra-mengWhole plant: chloroform methanol waterWater, chloroform, methanol extracts of whole plant exhibited inhibition in MABA against H37Ra strain at the MICs of 62.5, 125, 1000 µg/ml respectively [50].Asthma and TB [126].

Eriosema chinense VogelLeguminosaeToon
Khonklong
Roots: hexane, dichloromethane, methanol/Khonklonginol A (1), B (2), F (6), H (8), lupinifolinol (9), dehydrolupinifolinol (10), flemichin D (11), eriosemaone A (12), lupinifolin (13) were obtained from the extractCrude hexane extract showed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC value of 50 µg/ml using MABA. Compounds 10, 11, 12,13 demonstrated good anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the same MIC value of 12.5 µg/ml. Compounds 1, 8,9 exhibited moderate activity with the same MIC value of 25 µg/ml. Compounds 2 and 6 showed activity at MIC values of 50 and 100 µg/ml, respectively [127].Nil.

Erythrina fusca Lour.FabaceaeThong longStem bark: hexane and ethyl acetate/sandwicensin (1), erythrisenegalone (2), lonchocarpol A (3), lupinifolin (4) were isolated from the extractCompounds 1, 2, 3,4 demonstrated anti-TB activity against H37Ra with MICs of 100, 50, 50, 25 µg/ml, respectively [128].Antibacterial [129].

Erythrina subumbrans Merr.LeguminosaeBark: n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol/1-methoxyerythrabyssin II (1) was isolated from the extract
Stem: n-hexane and dichloromethane/erystagallin A (1), erycristagallin (2), 5-hydroxysophoranone (3), erysubin F (4) were isolated from the extract

Compound 1 showed activity against H37Ra strain with 50 µg/ml MIC value [130].

All compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Ra with the MICs of 12.5 µg/ml [131].
Cough [131].

Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. M. Sm.ZingiberaceaeBunga kantanRhizomes: methanol/Stigmasterol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated from the extractAt 100 µg/ml, the methanolic extract of rhizomes showed 86% inhibition against H37Rv.
The isolated compounds 1 and 2 exhibited MIC > 128 µg/ml [67].
Nil.

Etlingera pavieana (Pierre ex Gagnep.) R. M. Sm.ZingiberaceaeRhizomes: dichloromethane/(E)-((E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)allyl)3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate (1) was isolated from the crude extractCompound 1 demonstrated anti-TB activity with the MIC value of 50.00 µg/ml [132].Fever and cough [132].

Fernandoa adenophylla (Wall. Ex G. Don) Steenis(Bignoniaceae)Khae PaFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolIn microbroth dilution assay, the extract exhibited inhibition at MIC of 79.7 to >100 µg/ml [56].Skin diseases [133].

Feroniella lucida SwingleRutaceaeSung
(mak)/kohk sung
90% ethanolThe extract showed inhibition against H37Rv at MIC value 91.54 µg/ml in MABA [53].Cough, TB [53, 134].
Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanolIn MABA, 90% ethanolic extract of fruits and flowers exhibited activity against H37Rv strain with MIC ranging from 90.4 to >100 µg/ml [53].

Ficus carica L.MoraceaeAraLeaves: 80% methanolThere was anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at 1600 µg/ml [57].Asthma, cough [135].

Flemingia strobilifera (L.) W. T. AitonFabaceaeSerenganLeaves: 80% methanolAt MIC = 1600 µg/ml, the extract showed anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain [57].TB [136].

Friesodielsia discolor (Craib) D. DasAnnonaceaeLeave: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/3′-formyl-2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1) was isolated from the extractCompound 1 exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with 6.25 µg/ml MIC value [137].Nil.

Garcinia mangostana L.ClusiaceaMangkhudFruits: α-mangostin (1), β-mangostin (2), γ-mangostin (3), garcinone D (4), mangostenol (5), garcinone B (6), mangostanin (7), mangostanol (8), mangostenone A (9), tovophyllin B (10), demethylcalabaxanthone (11), trapezifolixanthone (12), mangostinone (13) all isolated from chloroform, methanol extractCompounds isolated showed activities against H37Ra in microbroth dilution at different MIC values (µg/ml) 6.25 (1), 6.25 (2), 25 (3), 25 (4), 100 (5), 6.25 (6), 25 (7), 200 (8), 25 (9) 25 (10), 12.5 (11), 12.5 (12), 200 (13) [138].Fever [139].

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.RutaceaeXom XeuanFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolThe 90% ethanol extracts of fruits and flowers exhibited activities against H37Rv strain with the MIC of 93.5 to >100 µg/ml in MABA [56].Cough [140].

Goniothalamus gitingensis ElmerAnnonaceaeLeaves/Liriodenine (1) was isolated from the extract1 showed anti-TB with the MIC of 16 µg/ml [141].Nil.

Goniothalamus laoticus (Finet & Gagnep.) BânAnnonaceaeKhao-Lam-dongFlowers: goniotriol (1), (+)-altholactone (2), howiininA (3) and an aporphine alkaloid; (−)-nordicentrine (4), all isolated from n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol extractsIn microbroth dilution, the isolated compound 4 showed the best activity against H37Ra with MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, followed by compounds 2 and 3 both with the MIC of 6.25 µg/ml, and then compound 1 with 100 µg/ml [142].Cold [143].

Gynura divaricata (L.) DC.AsteraceaeLeaves: hexane, dichloromethane, methanol/essential oilThe essential oil showed inhibitory effect against H37Ra strain with the MIC value of 50 µg/ml [144].Bronchitis and pulmonary TB [144].

Gynura pseudochina (L.) D.C. var. hispida Thv.AsteraceaeWaan MahaakaanWhole plant: chloroform methanol waterAt the MIC of 200 µg/ml, chloroform extract of whole plant exhibited activity against H37Ra strain while both methanol and water extracts exhibited activity at 1000 µg/ml MIC, respectively [50].Asthma, fever, AIDS [145, 146].

Haplophragma adenophyllum (Wall. ex G. Don) DopBignoniaceaeKay pa90% ethanolIn MABA, the MIC of 83.25 µg/ml was observed against H37Rv [53].Cough [53].

Hedychium ellipticum Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.ZingiberaceaeRhizomes: n-hexane and dichloromethane/Coronarin E (1) and 16-Hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-15,16-olide (7) were isolated from the extractCompounds 1 and 7 exhibited good anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain using GFPMA with the MIC value of 12.5 and 6. 25 µg/ml, respectively [147].Bronchitis [148].

Heliotropium indicum Linn.BoraginaceaeYaa Nguang ChaangLeaves: waterThe crude extract showed activity against H37Ra strain using MABA with the MIC of 20.8 µg/ml [149].Asthma [149].

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.MalvaceaeBunga rayaLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Cough, leprosy, bronchial catarrh [150].

Hymenocardia wallichii TulEuphorbiaceaeStem: dichloromethane, methanol, hexane/Squalene were isolated from the extractSqualene displayed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC value of 100 µg/ml [151].Nil.

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.LamiaceaeMaeng luk khaWhole plant: hexane, chloroform and methanol/8α,9α-epoxysuaveolic acid (2), suaveolic acid (4), suaveolol (5) were isolated from the extractCompounds 2, 4, 5 displayed weak anti-TB activities (MIC 100–200 µg/ml) against H37Ra strain using MABA [152].Fever and respiratory tract infections [152].

Jasminum sambac (L.) AitonOleaceaeMelorLeaves: 80% methanolAt MIC = 1600 µg/ml, the crude extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain [57].Cough, Leprosy [153].

Jatropha curcas L.EuphorbiaceaeJarakLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract showed in vitro activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Leprosy [154].

Jatropha integerrima Jacq.EuphorbiaceaeRoots: dichloromethane and ethanol/caniojane were isolated from the extractCaniojane exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain using MABA with 25 µg/ml MIC value [155].Styptic [156].

Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.AcanthaceaeUrat sugiLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Respiratory disorders [157].

Kaempferia galangal L.ZingiberaceaeKencurNot statedIn LRP assay, the extract at 500 µg/ml exhibited 69.0% inhibition against both H37Rv and MDR strain [47].Asthma, cough [158].

Kaempferia marginata CareyZingiberaceaeTup mupWhole plant: dichloromethane and/(1R,2S,5S,9S,10S,11R,13R)-1,2,11-trihydroxy-pimara-8(14),15-diene (2), (1S,5S,7R,9R,10S,11R,13R)-1,7,-11-trihydroxypimara-8(14),15-diene (3), (1R,2S,5S,7S,9R,10S,13R)-1,2-dihydroxypimara-8(14),15- diene-7-one (6), sandaracopimaradien-1α-ol,2α-acetoxysandaracopimaradien-1α-ol, sandaracopimaradien-1α,2α-diol were isolated from the extractCompounds sandaracopimaradien-1α-ol and 2α-acetoxysandaracopimaradien-1α-ol exhibited ant-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the MIC values of 25 and 50 µg/ml, respectively.
Compounds 2, 3, 6, sandaracopimaradien-1α,2α-diol were less active (MICs of > 100 µg/ml) [159].
Fever [159].

Lantana camara L.VerbenaceaeKembang telekNot statedAt 500 µg/ml, the extract exhibited 94.0 and 79.0% inhibition against H37Rv and MDR, respectively, in LRP assay [47].TB, leprosy, asthma [160, 161].

Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh.SapindaceaeMertajamLeaves: 80% methanolIn broth microdilution assay, the extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain at 1600 µg/ml [57].TB [162].

Licuala spinosa Thunb.ArecaceaePalas tikusLeaves: 80% methanolIn TEMA, the extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain at 1600 µg/ml [57].TB [57].

Limnophila geoffrayi BonatiScrophulariaceaeProd Ka yaengFlavones nevadensin (1) and isothymusin (2), all were isolated from chloroform extract of aerial partBoth compounds 1 and 2 showed activities against H37Ra in MABA at the MIC = 200 µg/ml [163].Expectorant [164].

Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. XueAnnonaceaeTin Tang TiaFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolThe extract of fruits and flowers exhibited activities at MIC ranging between 0.05 and 11.9 µg/ml in MABA against H37Rv [56].Nil.

Micromelum minutum Wight & Arn.RutaceaeSa Mat KhaoFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolThe activity against H37Rv strain in MABA was observed at the MIC of 45.7 to >100 µg/ml from 90% ethanolic extract [56].Cough, fever [165].

Momordica charantia L.CucurbitaceaeAmpalayaLeaves: ethanol/2,4-bis(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)phenol (1) isolated from the extractCompound 1 exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain MIC value of 14 µg/ml using MABA [166].Leprosy [167].

Morinda citrifolia Linn.RubiaceaeNoniLeaves: ethanol and hexane/(E)-phytol (1), cycloartenol (2), stigmasta-4-en-3-one (3), stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one (4), β-sitosterol (5), stigmasterol (6), campesta-6,22-dien-5α,8α-epidioxy-3β-ol (7) were isolated from the extractAt 100 µg/ml, the crude extract of ethanol and hexane fractions displayed 89 and 95% inhibition, respectively, against H37Rv strain.
2 : 1 mixture of compounds 3 and 4 exhibited good activity (MIC = 2 µg/ml) against H37Rv strain followed by 7 (MIC = 2.5 µg/ml) and then 1 and 6 (MICs = 32 µg/ml). Compound 2 and 5 were less active with MIC values of 64 and 128 µg/ml, respectively [168].
Respiratory infection [168].

Morus alba L.MoraceaeMerbatuLeaves and fruit: 80% methanolIn broth microdilution assay, the extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain at 1600 µg/ml [57].Cough [169].

Murraya paniculata (L.) JackRutaceaeKaeoLeaves: chloroform methanol waterChloroform extract of leaves at the MIC of 250 µg/ml showed activity against H37Ra strain while both methanol and water extracts exhibited activity at 1000 µg/ml MIC, respectively [50].Cough, asthma, expectorant [170172].

Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.LamiaceaeMisai KuchingLeaves: hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetateThe hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts of leaves exhibited activity with the MICs of 25.00, 3.12, 6.25 µg/ml [173].Loss of weigh [174].

Passiflora foetida L.PassifloraceaeLetup-letupWhole plant: 80% methanolThere was inhibition against H37Rv at MIC = 1600 µg/ml [57].Cough [175].

Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit.EuphorbiaceaeSa yaekLeaves: methanol, water, hexane/1α,13β,14α-trihydroxy-3β,7β-dibenzoyloxy-9β,15β-diacetoxyjatropha-5,11E-diene (1), 1α,7β,13β,14α-tetrahydroxy-3β-benzoyloxy-9β,15β-diacetoxyjatropha-5,11E-diene (2), 1α,8β,9β,14α,15β-pentaacetoxy-3β-benzoyloxy-7-oxojatropha-5,12-diene (3), 7,8β,9β,14α,15β-pentaacetoxy-3β-benzoyloxy-1α,5β-dihydroxyjatropha-6(7),12-diene (4), 1α,7,8β,9β,14α,15β-hexaacetoxy-3β-benzoyloxy-5β-hydroxyjatropha-6(7),12-diene (5) were obtained from the extractCompound 1 showed stronger (12.5 µg/ml) activity compared to 2, 3, 4, and 5 (100, 50, 100, and 50 µg/ml resp.) against H37Ra in MABA [176].Nil.

Petiveria alliacea L.PhytolaccaceaeSingawalang96% ethanol: leavesThe ethanolic extract of leaves exhibited activity against drug sensitive and resistant strains of H37Rv at the MIC of 1280 µg/ml [177].Antibacterial [178].
Not statedAt 500 µg/ml, the extract exhibited 98.0 and 76.0% inhibition against H37Rv and MDR, respectively, in LRP assay [47].

Phyllanthus acidus (L.) SkeelsEuphorbiaceaeCermaiLeaves: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC = 1600 µg/ml [57].Cough [179].

Piper betle L.PiperaceaePlu, Daun sirihLeaves:chloroform methanol waterChloroform extract of leaves was more active against H37Ra strain with MIC value 62.5 µg/ml than the methanol and water extract both with activity at MIC of 1000 µg/ml [50].Asthma, leprosy cough, dyspnea, bronchitis [180182].

Piper chaba HunterPiperaceaeDee pleeFruit: chloroform, methanol, water; compound Piperine (1) was isolated from chloroform crude extract of fruitInhibition against H37Ra strain was observed at MIC (µg/ml) of 16, 25, 1000 with respect to the chloroform, methanol, water extract of fruit in MABA. Compound 1 isolated exhibited activity at MIC of 50 µg/ml [50].Asthma [183].
Stem: n-hexane/chabamide (1) was isolated from the extractCompound 1 exhibited anti-TB activity with the MIC value of 12.5 µg/ml against H37Ra strain [184].

Piper nigrum L.PiperaceaeLada hitam Fruit: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Asthma, bronchitis, TB, sore throat [185, 186].
Leaves: ethyl acetate n-hexane waterEthyl acetate, n-hexane, water extract fraction of leaves exhibited inhibition against H37Rv strain using TEMA at the MIC values of 25, 50, 100 µg/ml, respectively [185].

Piper sarmentosum Roxb.PiperaceaeKadok, Cha-plu Whole plant: 80% methanolAt the MIC = 800 µg/ml, the extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain [57].Cough [187].
Leaves: petroleum ether, Chloroform, methanolThe methanol extract of leaves showed more activity against MTB (MIC 12.5 µg/ml) in TEMA than both petroleum ether and Chloroform extracts (MIC 25 µg/ml). The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of methanol extract exhibited MICs at 3.12 µg/ml [188].
Leaves: aqueous, ethanolThe aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves exhibited anti-TB activity MIC/MBC 12.5 µg/ml. Methanolic extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate; the fraction of ethyl acetate exhibited anti-TB activity with MIC/MBC 3.12 µg/ml [189].
Fruits: hexane and methanol/pellitorine (1), guineensine (2), brachystamide B (3), sarmentine (4), brachyamide B (5), sarmentosine (8), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1E-tetradecene (11) were isolated from the extractCompounds 1 and 11 were more active (MICs = 25 µg/ml) against H37Ra strain followed by 2, 4, 5 (MICs = 50 µg/ml); then 3 and 8 showed weaker activities with the MIC values of 100 and 200 µg/ml, respectively [190].

Pistia stratiotes L.AraceaeWater lettuceWhole plant: 80% methanolThe inhibition against H37Rv was observed at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Leprosy, TB [191].

Pluchea indica (L.) Less.AsteraceaeBeluntasFlower
Leaves: 80% methanol
In TEMA, the extracts of flowers and leaves showed inhibitory activities against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 800 µg/ml each [57].TB [192].
Leaves: aqueousThe extract showed 100% inhibition against H37Rv and MDR at 5 mg/ml [71].

Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Benth. ex BeddAnnonaceaeSai denRoot: hexane, EtOAc, MeOH/Bidebiline E (1), octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid (2), α-humulene (3) were isolated from the extractIsolated compounds 1, 2,3 showed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with MICs of 6.25 µg/ml [193].Fever [193].

Polyalthia debilis (Piere) Finet & ganepAnnonaceaeKon KrokRoot: methanol/Debilisone B (1), Debilisone C (2), Debilisone E (3)Compounds 1, 2, 3 showed moderate anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with MIC values of 25.0, 12.5, 25.0 µg/ml, respectively [194].TB [195].

Premna odorata BlancoLamiaceaeAlagawLeaves: methanol and dichloromethane/1-heneicosyl formate (1) was isolated from the extractCrude methanolic extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain with >128 µg/ml MIC. Compound 1 showed good anti-TB activity (8 µg/ml) [196].TB [196].

Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) StearnCommelinaceaeNilLeaves: 80% methanolAt 5 mg/ml, the extract exhibited 100% inhibition against H37Rv and MDR [71].TB, asthma [197].

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill.AnnonaceaeKhanthalohtFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolFruits and flowers extract were active at MIC ranging between 43.9 and 75.2 µg/ml in MABA [56].Nil.

Rothmannia wittii (Craib) Bremek.RubiaceaeMuk MoBark and fruits: n-Hexane and ethyl acetate/A compound 6β-hydroxy-10-O-acetylgenipin (1) was isolated from the extractCompound 1 displayed activity against H37Ra using MABA with MIC value of 12.50 µg/ml [198].Fever [198].

Sapium indicum L.EuphorbiaceaeFruit: hexane/compounds 12-(2-N-methylaminobenzoyl)-4β,5,20-trideoxyphorbol-13-acetate (1), 12-(2-N-methylaminoben-zoyl)-4α,5,20-trideoxyphorbol-13-acetate (2), sapintoxin A (3), α- saponine (4), sapintoxin C (5), 12-(2-N-methylaminobenzoyl)-4α,20-dideoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol-13-acetate (6) sapintoxin B (7), 12-(2′-N-methylaminobenzoyl)-4α-deoxy-5,20-dihydroxyphorbol-13-acetate (8), 12-(2-methylaminobenzoyl)-4-deoxyphorbaldehyde-13-acetae (9) were isolated from extractCompound 3 (MIC, 3.12 µg/ml) was the most active compound against H37Ra using MABA, followed by 7 (MIC, 12.5 µg/ml) and then followed by 5, 8,9 (MIC, 25 µg/ml). Compound 1 showed moderate activity (MIC, 50 µg/ml) while 2, 4,6 showed weak activity (200, >200, >200 MIC, µg/ml, respectively) [199].Fever [200].

Selaginella plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Hieron.SelaginellaceaePaka merakWhole plant: 80% methanolIn in vitro assay, the extract showed activity against H37Rv at 1600 µg/ml MIC [57].Coughing and asthma [57].

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir.LeguminosaeGeti Fruit: 80% methanolThe extract exhibited inhibition against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57].Sore throat [201].
Root: methanol/isovestitol (1), medicarpin (2), sativan (3), betulinic acid (4)The methanol crude extract exhibited anti-TB activity against H37Rv with MIC value of 625 μg/ml. Isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited MIC of 50 µg/ml while compound 4 showed activity at MIC of 100 µg/ml [202].

Solanum spirale Roxb.SolanaceaePak ditFruit: waterEssential oil extracted showed anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with MIC value of 50 µg/ml [203].Fevers and colds [203].

Solanum torvum Sw.SolanaceaeTerung pipitFruit: 80% methanolThere was inhibition at the MIC of 1600 μg/mL against H37Ra strain [57].Cough [204].

Spilanthes acmella (L.) MurrayAsteraceaeRaanWhole plant: chloroform methanol waterThe chloroform, methanol, water extract of whole plant exhibited inhibition in MABA, against H37Ra strain at the MIC of 500, 1000, 1000 µg/ml, respectively [50].TB, cough, sore throats [205, 206].

Spondias pinnata (L.f.) KurzAnacardiaceaeLoloh cemcemChloroform, 80% ethanol.The extracts were active against MDR strain of Lowenstein-Jensen medium with 100% inhibition at concentration of 100 mg/ml [207].Chronic cough [207].

Tabernaemontana coronaria (L.) Willd.ApocynaceaeJasmineLeaves: 80% methanolAt the MIC of 800 µg/ml, the extract showed inhibition against H37Rv strain [57].TB [57].

Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) DielsMenispermaceaeYa-nangRoots: tiliacorinine (1), 2′-nortiliacorinine (2), tiliacorine (3), 13′-bromo-tiliacorinine (4) were isolated from the extractCompounds 1, 2, 3,4 demonstrated anti-TB activity against MDR-MTB strains with the MIC values ranging from 0.7 to 6.2 µg/ml [208].Fever [209].

Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. F. & ThomsonMenispermaceaeKheuah Khao HoFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolIn microbroth dilution assay, the extract exhibited inhibition at MIC of 2.43 to 96.2 µg/ml [56].Coughs, asthma leprosy [210, 211].

Trigonostemon reidioides (Kurz) CraibEuphorbiaceaeLot ThanongRoot: n-hexane, EtOAc, MeOH/Compounds trigonoreidon A (1), trigonoreidon B (2), trigonoreidon C (3), trigonostemon C (7), spruceanol (8), trigonostemone (9), rediocide A (10), rediocide B (11), rediocide C (12), rediocide F (13), rediocide G (14) were isolated from the extractAmong the tested compounds, 12 and 14 were the two most active compounds against H37Ra strain with the MICs of 3.84 µM, followed by 13, with the MIC of 3.91 µM. Compounds 11 and 10 were active and moderately active with the MICs of 7.86 and 15.72 µM, respectively. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 exhibited weak activity with MICs of 183.57, 168.71, 88.55, 83.79, 72.58, 38.30 µM, respectively [212].Asthma [212].

Uvaria microcarpa Champ. ex Benth.AnnonaceaePhii PhouanFruits and flowers: 90% ethanolThe extract showed inhibition at MIC ranging from 43.2 to >100 µg/ml against H37Rv [56].Nil.

Uvaria rufa BlumeAnnonaceaeMak Phii Phouan, Susung kalabaw Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanolThe activity against H37Rv strain was observed at the MIC ranging from 33.1 to >100 µg/ml in MABA [56].TB [213].
Methanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol Kaempferol (1), quercitrin (2) isolated from methanolic extract of leave All three extracts showed inhibition in MIC value >128 µg/ml in MABA.
Mixture of 1 and 2 exhibited activities against H37Rv with MIC of 64 µg/ml using microplate Alamar Blue assay [214].

Uvaria valderramensis Cabuang, Exconde & AlejandroAnnonaceaeUsogLeaves: dichloromethane and methanol/valderramenols A (1), grandiuvarone (2), andreticuline (3) isolated from the extractCompound 1 showed better activity (10 µg/ml) while 2 and 3 exhibited lesser activity (32 µg/ml) against H37Rv using MABA [215].

Vitex trifolia L.VerbenaceaePhi sua 90% ethanol The extract showed inhibition at MIC value of 8.02 µg/ml against H37Rv [53].Asthma, cough [53, 216].
 Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanolIn in vitro assays, 90% ethanolic fruit and flower extract exhibited activity against H37Rv strain at the MIC ranging from 77.6 to >100 µg/ml [56].

Voacanga globosa Merr.ApocynaceaeBayag-usaLeaves: dichloromethane and methane/Globospiramine (1) was isolated from the extract1 demonstrated potent anti-TB activity against H37Rv strain as demonstrated in MABA (MIC = 4 µg/ml) and low-oxygen recovery assay (MIC = 5.2 µg/ml) [217].TB [218].

Zingiber officinale RoscoeZingiberaceaeHalia, LuyaRhizome: 80% methanol/6-shogaol (1) and 6-gingerol (2) were isolated from the extractIn TEMA, the extract of methanol showed inhibition against H37Rv strain at the MIC of 1600 µg/ml [57]. At 100 µg/ml, the methanolic extract of rhizomes showed 61% inhibition against H37Rv. The isolated compound 2 (MIC 33 µg/ml) showed more activity than 1 (MIC 64 µg/ml) [67].Cough, asthma [219].

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm.ZingiberaceaeHaeo damRhizome: chloroform methanol waterIn MABA, the chloroform, methanol, water extract of rhizome exhibited inhibition against H37Ra strain at the MIC of 125, 1000, 1000 µg/ml, respectively [50].Leprosy, cough, asthma, chest pain, loss of appetite [220, 221].

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.RhamnaceaePhut-saRoot: mauritine M (1) and nummularines H (2), all isolated from ethanol extractsIsolated compounds exhibited activities against H37Ra at the MIC 72.8 µg/ml (1) and 4.5 µg/ml (2) [222].Asthma, bronchitis [223, 224].

Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill.RhamnaceaeRoot: hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol/Ziziphine N and Q were isolated from the extractZiziphine N and Q showed weak anti-TB activity against H37Ra strain with the same MIC value of 200 µg/ml [225].Asthma, fever [226].