Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Brazilian Amazon Traditional Medicine and the Treatment of Difficult to Heal Leishmaniasis Wounds with Copaifera

Table 3

Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Copaifera and terpenes present in this genre.

SpeciesPromastigote (IC50-g/mL)Amastigote (IC50-g/mL)Cytotoxicity (IC50-g/mL)/ISChemical compositionReference

Copaifera reticulate7.880.52NDRondon et al., 2012 [15]

Copaifera reticulate (Pará)5.0 ± 0.820.040.0/8.0 e 2.0Copalic (2.4%); kaurenoic (3.9%) acidSantos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera reticulata (Acre)22.0 ± 0.0NDNDCopalic (7.7%), kaurenoic (7.5%), hardwickiic (6.9%) acidSantos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera martii14.0 ± 0.9NDNDKaurenoic (7.9%); kovalenic (29.0%) acidSantos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera cearensis18.0 ± 0.0NDNDHardwickiic (6.2%); copalic (2.1%) acidSantos et al. 2008 [10]

Copaifera paupera11.0 ± 0.4NDNDCopalic (6.1%); kaurenoic (13.3%)Santos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera langsdorffii20.0 ± 0.8NDNDCopalic (5.6%); kaurenoic (44.3%); hardwickiic (8.2%) acidSantos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera officinalis20.0 ± 0.4NDNDCopalic (13.9%); hardwickiic (30.7%) acidSantos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera multijuga10.0 ± 0.8NDNDCopalic (6.2%)Santos et al., 2008 [10]

Copaifera lucens20.0 ± 0.9NDNDCopalic (11.1%); polyalthic (69.8%) acidSantos et al., 2008[10]

Copaifera paupera (Herzog) Dwyer>100>100Estevez et al., 2007 [16]

Kaurenoic acid28.0 ± 0.73.5 ± 0.5140.0 ± 17.0/40.0dos Santos et al., 2013 [17]

Hydroxycopalic acid2.5 ± 0.418.0 ± 1.540.0 ± 2.4/2.2dos Santos et al., 2013 [17]

Polyalthic acid35.0 ± 2.015.0 ± 1.0>500/>33.3dos Santos et al., 2013 [17]

Pinifolic acid70.0 ± 8.04.0 ± 0.4>500/>125.0dos Santos et al., 2013 [17]

Caryophyllene oxide2.985.0Soares et al., 2013 [59]

Sesquiterpenes2.392.4Soares et al., 2013 [59]

Amphotericin B0.06 ± 0.00.23 ± 0.0NDNDdos Santos et al., 2013 [17]